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Found 186 gene(s). Export as Excel file, text file

Victors ID Gene Name Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) NCBI Gene ID NCBI Nucleotide GI NCBI Protein GI Locus Tag Genbank Accession Protein Accession Protein Name Molecule Role Molecule Role Annotation PMID
4713 acs1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3253764 58259419 CNA07740 AE017341 XP_567122 Virulence factor MUTATION: acs1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Hu et al., 2008).
18673460
4714 ADE2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501 4063512 phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase Virulence factor MUTATION: ade2 mutant is attenuated in central nervous system model in immunosuppressed rabbits (Perfect et al., 1993).
8406836
4715 AOX1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 20467244 20467245 AAM22475.1 alternative oxidase Virulence factor MUTATION: The aox1 mutant strain was significantly less virulent than both the wild type and the reconstituted strain in the murine inhalational model, and it also had significantly impaired growth within a macrophage-like cell line (Akhter et al., 2003).
14500501
4716 apt1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3257282 58266214 CND02400 AE017344 XP_570263 Virulence factor MUTATION: apt1 mutant is attenuated in mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis (Hu and Kronstad, 2010).
19949048
4717 CAC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 12620209 adenylate cyclase Virulence factor MUTATION: cac1 mutant strains are avirulent in mice (Alspaugh et al., 2002).
12455973
4719 CAP10 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-4500 5532490 5532491 AAD44757.1 capsular associated protein Virulence factor MUTATION: cap10 mutant is attenuated in mice (Chang and Kwon-Chung, 1999).
10482503
4720 cap59 Cryptococcus neoformans 432449 432450 AAC13946.1 CAP59 Virulence factor MUTATION: cap59 mutant is avirulent in mice (Chang and Kwon-Chung, 1994).
8007987
4721 CAP60 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-4500 3108214 3108215 AAC39450.1 Cap60p Virulence factor MUTATION: cap60 mutant is avirulent in mice (Chang and Kwon-Chung, 1998).
9573112
4722 CAP64 Cryptococcus neoformans 845290 845291 AAB06581.1 Virulence factor MUTATION: Gene deletion of CAP64 from a wild-type strain resulted in the loss of capsule as well as virulence in mice (Chang et al., 1996).
8675296
4723 ccr4 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3254820 58261188 CNL04550 AE017352 XP_568004 Virulence factor MUTATION: ccr4 mutant is attenuated in mice (Panepinto et al., 2007).
17646356
4724 CFT1 Cryptococcus neoformans 74684770 Protein CFT1 Virulence factor MUTATION: CFT1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Jung et al., 2008).
18282105
4725 CIR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B3501A 108802599 108802600 ABG21303.1 iron regulator 1 Virulence factor MUTATION: cir1 mutant is avirulent in mice (Jung et al., 2006).
17121456
4726 CLC-A Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii 29374036 voltage-gated chloride channel Virulence factor MUTATION: CLC-A mutant is attenuated in mice (Zhu and Williamson, 2003).
14622414
4727 CPRa1 Cryptococcus neoformans 13603796 13603797 AAK31936.1 pheromone receptor CPRa1p Virulence factor MUTATION: cpra mutant celss produce smaller capsules in the brains of mice than wild-type cells, is also attenuated for virulence in mice (Chang et al., 2003).
12933837
4728 CPS1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3255024 58261552 CNL06630 AE017352 XP_568186 Virulence factor MUTATION: cps1 mutant is attenuated in C. elegans killing assay (Jong et al., 2007).
17545316
4729 ena1 Virulence factor MUTATION: ena1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Idnurm et al., 2009).
19151325
4730 ess1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans 22597179 22597180 AAN03477.1 prolyl isomerase Ess1 Virulence factor MUTATION: ess1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Ren et al., 2005).
15870468
4731 gcn5 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3253516 58258473 CNA03280 AE017341 XP_566649 Virulence factor MUTATION: gcn5 mutant is avirulent in mice (O'Meara et al., 2010).
20581290
4732 gcs1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3259176 58270488 CNH02280 AE017348 XP_572400 Virulence factor MUTATION: gcs1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Kechichian et al., 2007).
17664261
4733 IPC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii 9965982 inositol-phosphoryl ceramide 1 synthase Virulence factor MUTATION: ipc1 mutant is attenuated in rabbits and in murine macrophages (Luberto et al., 2001).
11157776
4734 kin1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3254698 58260922 CNK02740 AE017351 XP_567871 Virulence factor MUTATION: kin1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Idnurm et al., 2009).
19151325
4735 kre5 Virulence factor MUTATION: kre5 mutant is avirulent in mouse inhalation model of infection (Gilbert et al., 2010).
20384682
4736 MAN1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans 9965933 9965934 AAG10203.1 mannose-6-phosphate isomerase Virulence factor MUTATION: man1 mutant is attenuated in mice and rabbits (Wills et al., 2001).
11359567
4737 met3 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 19569780 sulfate adenyltransferase MET3 Virulence factor MUTATION: met3 mutant is avirulent in mice (Pascon et al., 2004).
15347759
4738 nmt Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501A 4939624 134118644 CNBN0070 AAEY01000065 XP_772024 Virulence factor MUTATION: nmt mutant is attenuated in immunosuppressed rabbits (Lodge et al., 1994).
7991574
4739 NRG1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii 100271780 transcriptional regulator Nrg1 Virulence factor MUTATION: nrg1 mutant strain is attenuated in mice (Cramer et al., 2006).
16835458
4740 PLB1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 7637534 7637535 AAF65220.1 secreted phospholipase B Virulence factor MUTATION: plb1 mutant is attenuated in murine macrophages and in mouse respiratory infections (Noverr et al., 2003).
12595473
4741 ras1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3256195 58264766 CNC01830 AE017343 XP_569539 Virulence factor MUTATION: ras1 mutant is avirulent in rabbit model of cryptococcal meningitis (Alspaugh et al., 2000).
10792722
4742 sec6 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3254663 58260630 CNK02540 AE017351 XP_567725 Virulence factor MUTATION: sec6 RNAi mutant strains of C. neoformans were defective in a number of virulence factors and demonstrated attenuated virulence in mice (Panepinto et al., 2009).
19210702
4743 snf1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3256405 58265606 CNC01260 AE017343 XP_569959 Virulence factor MUTATION: snf1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Hu et al., 2008).
18673460
4744 SOD1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 12698734 Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sod1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Cox et al., 2003).
12496163
4745 TPS1 Cryptococcus gattii 171466692 171466693 ACB46525.1 trehalose 6-P synthase Virulence factor MUTATION: tps1 mutant is attenuated in C. elegans pathogenesis model (Polacheck et al., 1990).
2117574
4746 UGT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii 146166995 146166996 DAA05967.1 UGT1 Virulence factor MUTATION: ugt1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Moyrand et al., 2007).
17462022
4747 URE1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 3688062 3688063 AAC62257.1 urease Virulence factor MUTATION: ure1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Cox et al., 2000).
10639402
4748 VPH1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 (ATCC 208821) 15027611 vacuolar (H+)-ATPase subunit Virulence factor MUTATION: vph1 mutant is avirulent in a mouse meningo-encephalitis model (Erickson et al., 2001).
11737651
4749 BWC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 58397459 white collar 1 Virulence factor MUTATION: bwc1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Idnurm and Heitman, 2005).
15760278
4750 BWC2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 58397461 white collar 2 Virulence factor MUTATION: bwc2 mutant is attenuated in mice (Idnurm and Heitman, 2005).
15760278
4751 CBP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 7546976 calcineurin-binding protein Virulence factor MUTATION: cpb1 mutant is avirulent in both a rabbit model of cryptococcal meningitis and in a murine systemic infection model (Görlach et al., 2000).
10899116
4752 ccn1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans H99 11527208 11527209 AAG36938.1 CCN1 Virulence factor MUTATION: ccn1 mutant fails to cause systemic infection in mice (Chung et al., 2003).
12654817
4753 FHB1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 37783289 flavohemoglobin Virulence factor MUTATION: fhb1 mutant is attenuated in mice (de et al., 2003).
14614821
4754 GPA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii ATCC 42163 533774 G-protein alpha subunit Virulence factor MUTATION: gpa1 mutant is attenuated in rabbits (Alspaugh et al., 1997).
9389652
4755 HOG1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 59805189 59805190 AAX08139.1 mitogen-activated protein kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: hog1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Bahn et al., 2005).
15728721
4756 mpf3 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3259238 58270514 CNH02380 AE017348 XP_572413 Virulence factor MUTATION: mpf3 mutant is attenuated in mice (Panepinto et al., 2005).
15765146
4757 mpk1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans 28974309 Mpk1 Virulence factor MUTATION: mpk1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Kraus et al., 2003).
12787363
4758 Pak1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii 18087341 PAK1 kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: pak1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Wang et al., 2002).
12455960
4759 PKA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 11096026 cAMP dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Virulence factor MUTATION: pka1 mutant is avirulent in mice and rabbits (D'Souza et al., 2001).
11287622
4760 Pkr1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 21667390 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit Virulence factor MUTATION: Pkr1 mutant is avirulent in mice (Hicks et al., 2004).
14871933
4761 SCH9 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 20385903 protein kinase Sch9 Virulence factor MUTATION: sch9 mutant is attenuated in rabbits (Wang et al., 2004).
15503029
4762 SKN7 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 54645917 54645918 AAV36564.1 Skn7 Virulence factor MUTATION: skn7 mutant is attenuated in mice (Wormley et al., 2005).
16041017
4763 STE11alpha Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans 11096131 11096132 AAG30205.1 Ste11alpha protein Virulence factor MUTATION: ste11 mutant is attenuated in mice (Clarke et al., 2001).
11298287
4764 STE12a Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans 12247088 STE12a Virulence factor MUTATION: STE12a deletion mutant is attenuated in mice (Chang et al., 2001).
11248066
4765 STE20alpha Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 25573205 STE20 Virulence factor MUTATION: ste20alpha mutant is attenuated in mice (Wang et al., 2002).
12455960
4766 Tco1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 88707339 88707340 ABD49452.1 two-component-like hybrid sensor histidine kinase 1 Virulence factor MUTATION: tco1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Bahn et al., 2006).
16672377
4767 trx1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 57230319 expressed protein Virulence factor MUTATION: trx1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Missall and Lodge, 2005).
16045626
4768 TSA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 32140413 thiol-specific antioxidant protein 1 Virulence factor MUTATION: TSA1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Missall et al., 2004).
14982637
4769 ura5 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3258511 58269846 CNG03730 AE017347 XP_572079 Virulence factor MUTATION: ura5 mutant is attenuated in mice (Varma et al., 1992).
1541525
4770 VAD1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii 74656036 ATP-dependent RNA helicase VAD1 Virulence factor MUTATION: vad1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Panepinto et al., 2005).
15765146
4851 cfo1 Virulence factor MUTATION: cfo1 mutant was attenuated in a mouse model of cryptococcosis (Jung et al., 2009).
19700638
4852 lac1 Virulence factor MUTATION: lac1 deficient strain is attenuated in mice (Noverr et al., 2004).
14977977
4853 met6 Virulence factor MUTATION: met6 is avirulent in mice (Pascon et al., 2004).
15347759
4854 PBX1 Virulence factor MUTATION: PBX1 mutant is severely attenuated in mice (Liu et al., 2007).
17337638
4855 PBX2 Virulence factor MUTATION: PBX2 mutant is severely attenuated in mice (Liu et al., 2007).
17337638
4856 rom2 Virulence factor MUTATION: rom2 mutant is attenuated in mice (Idnurm et al., 2009).
19151325
4857 tup1 Virulence factor MUTATION: tup1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Lee et al., 2009).
19820119
4858 pbs2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501A 4933995 134107447 CNBA7290 AAEY01000005 XP_777608 Virulence factor MUTATION: pbs2 mutant is attenuated in mice (Bahn et al., 2005).
15728721
4859 ssa1 Virulence factor MUTATION: ssa1 mutant is attenuated in mice (Zhang et al., 2006).
17040492
5150 CAP64 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3253232 58258997 CNA06800 AE017341 XP_566911 Virulence factor The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans plays a role in fatal infection in mice. Restoration of the ability to produce a capsule enabled Cryptococcus neoformans strain 602 to cause fatal infection in mice, whereas the strain 602 lacked with capsular remained avirulent.(Chang et al., 1997) 9125534
5257 ACL1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888032 799340552 CNAG_04640 CP003829 XP_012052118 Virulence factor MUTATION: ACL1 Gene is responsible for ATP-citrate lyase synthesis and acl1 mutants were unable to cause disease in a murine inhalation model (Griffiths et al., 2012). 23078142
5259 ADA2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885322 799341916 CNAG_01626 CP003830 XP_012052395 Virulence factor MUTATION: This factor is a homolog of the yeast protein Ada2, a member of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex that regulates transcription of stress response genes via histone acetylation. The mutant exhibits significant defects in in response to a variety of stress conditions, sexual development and virulence (Haynes et al., 2011). 22174677
5260 AFR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886955 799335321 CNAG_03450 CP003827 XP_012050956 Virulence factor MUTATION: AFR1 affects the resistance of Cryptococcus neoformans to microglia-mediated antifungal activity by delaying phagosomal maturation (Orsi et al., 2009).AFR1 deletion lead to the hypersusceptibility to fluconazole of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro (Sanguinetti et al., 2006). 19220870 16428784
5261 AGS1(Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A) Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886647 799335663 CNAG_03120 CP003827 XP_012051037 Virulence factor MUTATION: RNA interference of ADA1 expression in Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A lead to slow-growing and acapsular (Reese and Doering, 2003). 14622425
5262 AGS1(Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype D) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3258514 58269930 CNG04420 AE017347 XP_572121 Virulence factor MUTATION: Analysis of cell wall composition of the AGS1 deletion mutant demonstrated complete loss of alpha glucan accompanied by a compensatory increase in chitin/chitosan and a redistribution of beta glucan between cell wall fractions. The mutants were unable to growing mouse model of infection, but caused death in nematodes (Reese et al., 2007). 17244196
5263 ALL1(Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A) Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889763 799334008 CNAG_06576 CP003826 XP_012050709 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Δall1 mutants produced a shorter exo-PS with less branching and structural complexity (Jain et al., 2013). 23565821
5264 ALL1(Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype D) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3258361 58268496 CNF04420 AE017346 XP_571404 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Δall1 mutants of two serotypes produced a shorter exo-PS with less branching and structural complexity than the parental strains;Δall1 mutant strains manifested differences in epitope expression and significant resistance to phagocytosis (Jain et al., 2009; Jain et al., 2013). 18955480 23565821
5265 APH1(Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A) Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886492 799322149 CNAG_02944 CP003822 XP_012048240 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Δaph1 mutant had reduced virulece in both Galleria mellonella and mice model (Lev et al., 2014). 25227465
5266 APP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889762 799334003 CNAG_06574 CP003826 XP_012050708 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Δapp1 mutant strain showed a decreased virulence in mice deficient for complement C5 (A/Jcr), but it was hypervirulent in mice deficient for T and NK cells (Tgε26) (Luberto et al., 2003). 14523045
5267 ARG1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889694 799347129 CNAG_06500 CP003832 XP_012053527 Virulence factor MUTATION: Δarg1 mutants had impaired thermotolerance, compromised cell walls, reduced capsule production and melanization, defective cell separation, and the inability to form mating filaments and attenuated homeostasis and virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model (Lev et al., 2013). 23381992
5268 Atx1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886056 799331291 CNAG_02434 CP003825 XP_012050147 Virulence factor MUTATION: Needed for Cryptococcus neoformans melanin biosynthesis (Walton et al., 2005). 16102007
5269 URE2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888844 799347829 CNAG_05540 CP003833 XP_012053644 Virulence factor MUTATION: URE2 gene product is involved in the utilization of urea by the organism. The mutant had reduced virulence in mouse infection models (Varma et al., 2006). 17159224
5270 AVC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884066 799314350 CNAG_00240 CP003820 XP_012046607 Virulence factor MUTATION: The avc1 mutant had reduced growth on a selection of carbon sources, capsule inhibition, and poor melanization at 37 degree celsius (Ormerod et al., 2013). 23550133
5271 BCK1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888137 799340830 CNAG_04755 CP003829 XP_012052184 Virulence factor MUTATION: bck1 mutant had defects in cell wall integrity and high temperature endurance (Gerik et al., 2005). 16194228
5272 BLP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888137 799340830 CNAG_04755 CP003829 XP_012052184 Virulence factor MUTATION: BLP1 gene knock promoted the phagocytosis of Cryptococcus by macrophages in vitro (Chun et al., 2011). 21402362
5277 CAN2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888486 799324835 CNAG_05144 CP003823 XP_012048738 Virulence factor MUTATION: Can2 is the main carbonic anhydrase and suggest a physiological role for bicarbonate during C. neoformans growth (Mogensen et al., 2006). 16400172
5278 CAT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888371 799324461 CNAG_05015 CP003823 XP_012048657 Virulence factor MUTATION: CAT1 encode putative spore-specific catalases, however cat1 mutant is absent of phenotype of virulence changes in mouse infection models (Giles et al., 2006). 16963629
5279 CBK1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887056 799335528 CNAG_03567 CP003827 XP_012051006 Virulence factor MUTATION: One of the five components of the homologous RAM-signaling pathway in C. neoformans, deletion of CBK1 gene leading to morphological change of this fungi (Walton et al., 2006). 16775005
5280 CCC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889467 799345039 CNAG_06241 CP003831 XP_012053059 Virulence factor MUTATION: This gene belongs to the polycomb system that assembles repressive subtelomeric domains of H3K27 methylation (H3K27me) in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans(Dumesic et al., 2015). 25533783
5281 CCP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884881 799327664 CNAG_01138 CP003824 XP_012049342 Virulence factor MUTATION: Ccp1 is a mitochondrial antioxidant that catalyzes the degradation of hydrogen peroxide. The mutant showed attenuated resistance to exogenous oxidative stress in vitro but does not diminish the virulence of C.neofromans in a murine model (Giles et al., 2005). 15588993
5282 CDA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889088 799333267 CNAG_05799 CP003826 XP_012050538 Virulence factor MUTATION: Cda1 is one of the four putative chitin/polysaccharide deacetylases in C. neoformans. The chitosan production was abolished only in the cda1Δcda2Δcda3Δ triple-deletion strain however CDA1 single deletion was not sufficient to affect the chiitosan levels (Baker et al., 2007). 17400891
5283 CDC24 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887681 799338496 CNAG_04243 CP003828 XP_012051688 Virulence factor MUTATION: Cdc24 is a Ras1 effector in C. neoformans to mediate the ability of this fungus to grow at high temperature. Ras1-Cdc24 signalling cascade functions specifically through one of the three Cdc42/Rac1 homologues in C. neoformans (Nichols et al., 2007). 17233829
5284 CDC43 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886315 799321549 CNAG_02756 CP003822 XP_012048111 Virulence factor MUTATION: Cryptococcus neoformans CDC43 is important for thermotolerance, morphogenesis, and virulence (Selvig et al., 2013). 24014765
5285 CFT2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886502 799320449 CNAG_02959 CP003822 XP_012047832 Virulence factor MUTATION: CFT2 played no apparent role in iron acquisition;cft2 mutant was attenuated for virulence (Jung et al., 2008). 18282105
5286 CHI2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886920 799336363 CNAG_03412 CP003827 XP_012051242 Virulence factor MUTATION: This gene encodes one of endochitinases of Cryptococcus neoformans and involved in sexual reproduction (Baker et al., 2009). 19734369
5287 CHS3 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889683 799346398 CNAG_06487 CP003832 XP_012053352 Virulence factor MUTATION: One of the genes involved in melanization of Cryptococcus neoformans (Walton et al., 2005). 16102007
5288 CIG1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884553 799315896 CNAG_00776 CP003820 XP_012046953 Virulence factor MUTATION: The cig1Δ mutant was less susceptible than the wild-type strain to noniron metalloporphyrins (Cadieux et al., 2013). 23322859
5289 CIN1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23890540 799336891 CNAG_07718 CP003827 XP_012051371 Virulence factor MUTATION: Disruption of the CIN1 gene had a pleiotropic effect on growth, normal cytokinesis, intracellular transports and the production of several virulence factors. Additionally, Cin1 interacts with cryptococcal Cdc42 and Wsp1 (a WASP homologue) proteins in vitro, suggesting a conserved role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton (Shen et al., 2010). 20345666
5290 CLP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885768 799330070 CNAG_02111 CP003825 XP_012049851 Virulence factor MUTATION: The deletion of CLP1 leads to a block in sexual development after cell fusion but before filament formation, and cells without CLP1 are unable to grow vegetatively after cell fusion (Ekena et al., 2008). 17993575
5291 CMT Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884503 799313444 CNAG_00721 CP003820 XP_012046408 Virulence factor MUTATION: Mutant strains lacking CMTs or expressing Cmt variants defective in Cu-coordination exhibit severely attenuated virulence and reduced pulmonary colonization (Ding et al., 2013). 23498952
5292 CMT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884765 799327311 CNAG_01019 CP003824 XP_012049259 Virulence factor MUTATION: Had no effect on virulence in an animal model of cryptococcosis (Sommer et al., 2003). 14504286
5293 CnMT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888764 799347653 CNAG_05449 CP003833 XP_012053609 Virulence factor MUTATION: The CnMT1 was identified as one of the metallothioneins (MTs) and played an essential role in C. neoformans copper resistance (Palacios et al., 2014). 24317230
5294 CPA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23883998 799314095 CNAG_00135 CP003820 XP_012046553 Virulence factor MUTATION: The cpa1 mutant is inviable at 39℃ and attenuated for virulence (Wang et al., 2001). 11415984
5295 CPL1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887151 799318261 CNAG_03675 CP003821 XP_012047380 Virulence factor MUTATION: The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence (Cai et al., 2015). 25261494
5296 CRG1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23883988 799312412 CNAG_00125 CP003820 XP_012046183 Virulence factor MUTATION: The regulator of G protein signaling homolog Crg1 is a key regulator of pheromone-responsive mating in Cryptococcus neoformans. A mutation in the CRG1 gene has greatly increased virulence (Wang et al., 2004). 15503029
5297 CRZ1/SP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884579 799315987 CNAG_00802 CP003820 XP_012046971 Virulence factor MUTATION: Crz1 is a calcineurin-dependent transcription factor. Δcna1, and a CRZ1/SP1 mutant (Δcrz1) had attenuated cell wall integrity (Lev et al., 2012). 23251520
5298 CTR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23890524 799332799 CNAG_07701 CP003826 XP_012050436 Virulence factor MUTATION: Ctr1 is a Cu transporter and this gene was significantly induced under Cu limited conditions (Ding et al., 2011). 21819456
5299 CTR2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885542 799343669 CNAG_01872 CP003830 XP_012052816 Virulence factor MUTATION: The mutant displayed sensitivity to copper starvation and defects in polysaccharide capsule production and melanization, leading to increased phagocytosis by murine RAW264.7 macrophages (Chun and Madhani, 2010). 20824073
5300 CTS1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886831 799335143 CNAG_03319 CP003827 XP_012050913 Virulence factor MUTATION: The cts1 mutant exhibited defects in cell separation, growth, mating, and haploid fruiting however these were inviable when calcineurin was mutated or inhibited (Fox et al., 2003). 14555485
5301 ECA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886879 799336286 CNAG_03370 CP003827 XP_012051213 Virulence factor MUTATION: Eca1 is involved in maintaining ER function, thus contributing to stress tolerance and virulence acting in parallel with Ca2+-calcineurin signaling (Fan et al., 2007). 17502401
5302 ERG11 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886550 799322300 CNAG_03009 CP003822 XP_012048275 Virulence factor MUTATION: ERG11 is the target of FLC and AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans (Revankar et al., 2004; Sionov et al., 2010). 15474487 20368972
5303 FBP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888606 799325215 CNAG_05280 CP003823 XP_012048824 Virulence factor MUTATION: Fbp1 mutants showed normal growth and produced normal major virulence factors. Fbp1 is important for fungal sexual reproduction and the mutant showed attenuated virulence in mouse models (Liu et al., 2011). 21478432
5304 FRE3 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889716 799333819 CNAG_06524 CP003826 XP_012050663 Virulence factor MUTATION: FRE3 was shown to express an iron reductase activity and to play a role in iron-dependent growth of C. neoformans. Overexpression of FRE3 in the two original environmental strains increased growth in the macrophage cell line J774.16 and increased virulence (Hu et al., 2014). 24692633
5305 FRR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886292 799320765 CNAG_02729 CP003822 XP_012047918 Virulence factor MUTATION: This gene encoding the C. neoformans FKBP12 homolog, Disruption this gene conferred the fungi Rapamycin resistance (Cruz et al., 1999). 10330150
5306 FTR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888240 799339745 CNAG_04864 CP003829 XP_012051928 Virulence factor MUTATION: FTR1 disruption mutant grows more slowly than wild-type cells in low-iron medium, and shows delayed growth and altered capsule regulation in iron-replete medium [Lian et al., 2005].
5307 GTA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884053 799314302 CNAG_00193 CP003820 XP_012046597 Virulence factor MUTATION: The gta1 mutant exhibited impaired growth on all amino acids tested as sole nitrogen sources, with the exception of arginine and proline. Gat1 is not required for C. neoformans survival during macrophage infection or for virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis (Kmetzsch et al., 2011; Kmetzsch et al., 2011). 20673806
5308 GAT201 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885250 799342738 CNAG_01551 CP003830 XP_012052593 Virulence factor MUTATION: Gat201 is a regulator of multiple virulence pathways.GAT201 participates directly or indirectly in the regulation of both capsule induction and melanization (Liu et al., 2008). 18854164
5309 GLR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886023 799331197 CNAG_02399 CP003825 XP_012050124 Virulence factor MUTATION: The glr1Delta mutant is sensitive to nitrosative stress and macrophage killing in addition to being avirulent in mice (Missall et al., 2006). 16524907
5310 GMT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889106 799333326 CNAG_05817 CP003826 XP_012050553 Virulence factor MUTATION: GMT1 is one of the genes encoding GDP-mannose transporters in C. neoformans. Deletion of the GMT1 gene yields cells with small capsules and a defect in capsule induction (Cottrell et al., 2007). 17351078
5311 GBP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884994 799327999 CNAG_01262 CP003824 XP_012049425 Virulence factor MUTATION: The gene encoding a heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit. This gene is required for mating and haploid fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans (Wang et al., 2000). 10594037
5313 GPI8 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887934 799339219 CNAG_04525 CP003828 XP_012051855 Virulence factor MUTATION: GPI8 gene encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase. The GPI8 gene appears to be essential while disruption of the CIG1 gene encoding a mannoprotein resulted in impaired growth in low-iron medium and altered capsule response to the iron-replete condition [Lian et al., 2005].
5314 GPX1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889502 799346519 CNAG_06287 CP003832 XP_012053381 Virulence factor MUTATION: The mutant is sensitive to various peroxide stresses while showing wild-type resistance to other oxidant stresses and exhibit wild-type virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis (Missall et al., 2005). 16079336
5315 GSK3(Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501A) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501A 4934593 134108634 CNBB4980 AAEY01000011 XP_776970 Virulence factor MUTATION: It serves as an important link between sterol biosynthesis, oxygen sensing, CoCl2 sensitivity. The mutation showed no virulence in a mouse infection model (Chang et al., 2009). 19749173
5316 HEM15(Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3258191 58268754 CNF01700 AE017346 XP_571533 Virulence factor MUTATION: This gene, HEM15, is predicted to encode a ferrochelatase that catalyses the final step in haem biosynthesis from highly photoreactive porphyrins. HEM15 is regulated by light and the mutants are photosensitive and exhibit reduced virulence (Idnurm and Heitman, 2010). 20488877
5318 HXS1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887240 799317528 CNAG_03772 CP003821 XP_012047216 Virulence factor MUTATION: Hxs1 is required for glucose uptake. hxs1Δ mutant exhibited a significant reduction in glucose uptake activity (Liu et al., 2013). 23691177
5319 HXT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886943 799336417 CNAG_03438 CP003827 XP_012051260 Virulence factor MUTATION: hxt1 mutant strain showed virulence similar to that of the wild-type strain in experiments with Caenorhabditis elegans (Chikamori and Fukushima, 2005). 15907385
5320 ICL1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888629 799325265 CNAG_05303 CP003823 XP_012048837 Virulence factor MUTATION: Targeted deletion of ICL1 resulted in a dramatic decline in viability of C. neoformans cells under nitrogen deprivation (Xu et al., 2016). 27350614
5321 ilv2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884226 799314770 CNAG_00418 CP003820 XP_012046704 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Cryptococcus neoformans ILV2 gene, encoding acetolactate synthase. The ilv2 mutants were auxotrophic for isoleucine and valine and the auxotrophy was satisfied by these amino acids only when proline, and not ammonium, was the nitrogen source, indicating nitrogen regulation of amino acid transport (Kingsbury et al., 2004). 15133116
5323 ITR3C Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888700 799348169 CNAG_05381 CP003833 XP_012053726 Virulence factor MUTATION: itr1a itr3c double mutants showed significant virulence attenuation in murine infection models (Wang et al., 2011). 21398509
5324 ITR1a Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887954 799340296 CNAG_04552 CP003829 XP_012052055 Virulence factor MUTATION: itr1a itr3c double mutants showed significant virulence attenuation in murine infection models (Wang et al., 2011). 21398509
5326 KIC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889660 799347048 CNAG_06454 CP003832 XP_012053507 Virulence factor MUTATION: Kic1 in one of the components of RAM signaling pathway.Disruption of this pathway leads to hyperpolarization and attenuated virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans (Walton et al., 2006). 16775005
5327 KRE5 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887124 799317274 CNAG_03648 CP003821 XP_012047161 Virulence factor MUTATION: KREgenes are required for b-1,6-glucan synthesis,maintenance of capsule architecture and cell wall proteinanchoring in Cryptococcus neoformans (Gilbert et al., 2010). 20384682
5328 LIV7 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3258763 58269702 CNG02580 AE017347 XP_572007 Virulence factor MUTATION: Liv7 is a functional Golgi factor where it promotes the suppression of the exposure of a specific immunostimulatory molecule,
5329 MAC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889624 799346943 CNAG_06415 CP003832 XP_012053482 Virulence factor MUTATION: mac1D mutants exhibit defects in filamentation, melanin production, and high
5330 MET2 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884846 799326475 CNAG_01103 CP003824 XP_012049059 Virulence factor MUTATION: met mutants showed attenuated virulence in a mouse model (Nazi et al., 2007). 17353245
5331 MET6 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884226 799314770 CNAG_00418 CP003820 XP_012046704 Virulence factor MUTATION: The MET6 gene showed a substantial induction in response to methionine and a dramatic transcriptional induction in response to homocysteine (Pascon et al., 2004). 15347759
5333 MID1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887264 799317583 CNAG_03805 CP003821 XP_012047228 Virulence factor MUTATION: Mid1, a binding partner of Cch1,function as a store-operated Ca(2+)-selective channel gated by depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores (Hong et al., 2013). 23175710
5334 MPD1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501A 4934847 134109153 CNBC1820 AAEY01000013 XP_776691 Virulence factor MUTATION: MPD is required for mannitol biosynthesis and the ability to synthesize mannitol is essential for wild-type stress tolerance and virulence (Suvarna et al., 2000). 11021946
5335 MPR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884111 799314471 CNAG_00289 CP003820 XP_012046632 Virulence factor MUTATION: Mpr1 (mpr1Δ) failed to breach the endothelium in an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) (Vu et al., 2014). 24895304
5336 OVA1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23890195 799316317 CNAG_07338 CP003820 XP_012047040 Virulence factor MUTATION: OVA1 encodes a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that appears to negatively influence capsule production and melanin accumulation (Hu et al., 2007). 17367210
5338 PCK1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887655 799338421 CNAG_04217 CP003828 XP_012051670 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of PCK1 results in defective growth on lactic acid, normal growth on glucose, and attenuated virulence (Panepinto et al., 2005). 15765146
5339 PDE1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888431 799323689 CNAG_05081 CP003823 XP_012048491 Virulence factor MUTATION: The resulting mutants exhibited moderately elevated levels of melanin and capsule production relative to the wild type (Hicks et al., 2005). 16339715
5341 PEX1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23890250 799325851 CNAG_07403 CP003824 XP_012048907 Virulence factor MUTATION: The pex1 and pex6 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescent DsRED-SKL protein to peroxisomal punctate structures, in contrast to wild-type cells. The pex1 mutant exhibits wild-type virulence in a murine inhalation model and in an insect host, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not required for virulence under these conditions (Idnurm et al., 2007). 17041184
5343 PEX6 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887613 799337413 CNAG_04174 CP003828 XP_012051430 Virulence factor MUTATION: The pex1 and pex6 deletion mutants were unable to localize the fluorescent DsRED-SKL protein to peroxisomal punctate structures, in contrast to wild-type cells. pex1 and pex6 single mutants and a pex1 pex6 double mutant exhibit identical phenotypes, including abolished growth on fatty acids but no growth difference on acetate (Idnurm et al., 2007). 17041184
5344 PIK1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887770 799337705 CNAG_04335 CP003828 XP_012051498 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of each PIK1, RUB1, and ENA1 differentially reduced pulmonary growth and dissemination rates of C. neoformans and extended mice survival (He et al., 2012). 22846723
5345 RUB1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889180 799333617 CNAG_05896 CP003826 XP_012050615 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of each PIK1, RUB1, and ENA1 differentially reduced pulmonary growth and dissemination rates of C. neoformans and extended mice survival (He et al., 2012). 22846723
5346 PKA2(Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21,serotype D) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3253199 58258927 CNA05510 AE017341 XP_566876 Virulence factor MUTATION: The divergent Pka2 catalytic subunit was found to regulate mating, haploid fruiting, and virulence factor production in serotype D strains (Hicks et al., 2004). 14871933
5347 PKH2-02 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886463 799320505 CNAG_02915 CP003822 XP_012047847 Virulence factor MUTATION: Pkh2-02-mediated signaling in C. neoformans is crucial for stress tolerance, host-pathogen interactions, and both temperature-dependent and -independent virulence (Chabrier-Roselló et al., 2013). 23087368
5348 PLC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888974 799332333 CNAG_05677 CP003826 XP_012050330 Virulence factor MUTATION: Plc1 is a central regulator of cryptococcal virulence, acting through the protein kinase C/MAPK pathway, that it regulates release of Plb1 from the plasma membrane and is a candidate antifungal drug target (Chayakulkeeree et al., 2008). 18532984
5349 PMT4 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884742 799327247 CNAG_00996 CP003824 XP_012049244 Virulence factor MUTATION: Disruption of the C. neoformans PMT4 gene resulted in abnormal growth morphology and defective cell separation and attenuated virulence (Olson et al., 2007). 17142566
5350 PPG1 Cryptococcus gattii WM276 10188577 321250494 CGB_A7010W CP000286 XP_003191827 Virulence factor MUTATION: Phosphatase Ppg1 is crucial for cell integrity (Gerik et al., 2005). 16194228
5351 PTP Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888497 799324873 CNAG_05155 CP003823 XP_012048746 Virulence factor MUTATION: PTP1 and PTP2 were found to be stress-inducible genes, which were controlled by the MAPK Hog1 and the transcription factor Atf1. Ptp2 suppressed the hyperphosphorylation of Hog1 and was involved in mediating vegetative growth, sexual differentiation, stress responses, antifungal drug resistance, and virulence factor regulation through the negative-feedback loop of the HOG pathway. In contrast, Ptp1 was not essential for Hog1 regulation, despite its Hog1-dependent induction (Lee et al., 2014). 24728196
5352 PYK1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885494 799342196 CNAG_01820 CP003830 XP_012052462 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of PYK1 blocked for entry of 2- and 3-carbon substrates into gluconeogenesis and attenuated for virulence in a murine inhalation model (Price et al., 2011). 21652778
5353 RAC1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889257 799344608 CNAG_05998 CP003831 XP_012052960 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Rac paralogs play a primary role in polarized growth via the organization of reactive oxygen species and play only a minor role in the organization of actin (Ballou et al., 2013). 23748012
5354 RAS2 Cryptococcus gattii WM276 10186290 321262879 CGB_I2550C CP000294 XP_003196158 Virulence factor MUTATION: The Ras1 signal transduction pathway controls the ability of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to grow at high temperatures and to mate (Wang et al., 2002). 12455960
5355 RDI1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886828 799336188 CNAG_03316 CP003827 XP_012051176 Virulence factor MUTATION: RDI1-overexpressing strains exhibited altered morphology compared to that of the wild type, with apparent defects in maintaining proper cell polarity and cytokinesis. RDI1 deletion resulted in increased vacuole size in tissue culture medium and aberrant cell morphology at neutral pH (Price et al., 2008). 18779335
5357 Rim101 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888747 799348354 CNAG_05431 CP003833 XP_012053767 Virulence factor MUTATION: Downstream regulation of the Rim101 transcription factor and determined potential cell wall processes involved in the capsule attachment defects and altered mechanisms of virulence in the rim101? mutant (Ormerod et al., 2013). 23550133
5358 RPB4 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885158 799325943 CNAG_01444 CP003824 XP_012048930 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of Rpb4, growth at host temperature was impaired and virulence was attenuated (Bloom et al., 2013). 23659661
5359 SAC6 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888121 799340789 CNAG_04738 CP003829 XP_012052174 Virulence factor MUTATION: Endocytic processes were hampered in the sac6Δ mutant, but cell polarity and cytokinesis were not visibly disturbed however had no effect on virulence in mice (Chang et al., 2012). 22562467
5360 SCP1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885279 799342834 CNAG_01580 CP003830 XP_012052616 Virulence factor MUTATION: Orthologs of mammalian SREBP and Scap,, monitor oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis as a measure of cellular oxygen supply. Yeast Scp1 responds to 4-methyl sterols and thus shares properties with mammalian HMG-CoA reductase, a sterol-sensing domain protein whose degradation is regulated by the 4-methyl sterol lanosterol (Hughes et al., 2007). 17595166
5361 SRE1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888183 799340974 CNAG_04804 CP003829 XP_012052219 Virulence factor MUTATION: Orthologs of mammalian SREBP and Scap.fission yeast Scp1 responds to 4-methyl sterols and thus shares properties with mammalian HMG-CoA reductase, a sterol-sensing domain protein whose degradation is regulated by the 4-methyl sterol lanosterol (Hughes et al., 2007). 17595166
5362 SEC 14 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886679 799335732 CNAG_03153 CP003827 XP_012051055 Virulence factor MUTATION: CnΔsec14-1 was hypovirulent in mice and did not disseminate to the CNS by day 14 post infection. Furthermore, macrophage expulsion of live CnΔsec14-1was reduced (Chayakulkeeree et al., 2011). 21453402
5363 SIN1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888078 799340073 CNAG_04693 CP003829 XP_012052002 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of SIN1 affected cell viability in the presence of sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors (Lee et al., 2012). 22339665
5365 SKN1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884668 799326790 CNAG_00897 CP003824 XP_012049134 Virulence factor MUTATION: SKN1 are involved in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis, maintenance of cell wall integrity and retention of mannoproteins and known cryptococcal virulence factors in the cell wall of C. neoformans (Gilbert et al., 2010). 20384682
5366 SMT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886342 799320701 CNAG_02784 CP003822 XP_012047899 Virulence factor MUTATION: Δsmt1 mutant loses more than 80% of its virulence compared with the wild type and the reconstituted strain (Singh et al., 2012). 22151739
5367 SPE3-LYS9 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886976 799336493 CNAG_03476 CP003827 XP_012051284 Virulence factor MUTATION: SPE3-lys9 mutants grew slowly at 30 degrees C, were temperature sensitive in rich medium, and died upon lysine starvation (Kingsbury et al., 2004). 15189996
5368 SPO11 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888787 799348483 CNAG_05472 CP003833 XP_012053797 Virulence factor MUTATION: Spo11 and Ubc5 promote sporulation during both bisexual and unisexual reproduction (Feretzaki and Heitman, 2013). 23966871
5369 ZNF3 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889535 799346151 CNAG_06324 CP003832 XP_012053292 Virulence factor MUTATION: Znf3 participates in transposon silencing during unisexual reproduction and may serve as a link between RNAi silencing and sexual (Feretzaki and Heitman, 2013). 23966871
5370 SSN8 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884246 799314820 CNAG_00440 CP003820 XP_012046717 Virulence factor MUTATION: Ssn8 functions as a global regulator which negatively regulates diverse physiological and developmental processes and is required for virulence in C. neoformans (Wang et al., 2011). 21559476
5371 STE50 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23890345 799320432 CNAG_07507 CP003822 XP_012047827 Virulence factor MUTATION: C. neoformans STE50 gene has both conserved and novel functions during sexual reproduction and monokaryotic fruiting, and these functions are domain-dependent (Fu et al., 2011). 21299652
5372 STE6 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884643 799326899 CNAG_00869 CP003824 XP_012049160 Virulence factor MUTATION: The ste6 mutants in either mating-type background showed partially impaired mating functions, and mating was completely abolished in a bilateral mutant cross (Hsueh and Shen, 2005). 15643070
5373 STE7 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23885419 799343243 CNAG_01730 CP003830 XP_012052715 Virulence factor MUTATION: Ste7 and Cpk1 kinases were found to act as a co-ordinate signalling module, whereas the Ste12alpha transcription factor functions with a redundant partner or in a branched or parallel signalling pathway (de et al., 2003). 14614821
5374 Sxi1alpha Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889981 799328572 CNAG_06814 CP003824 XP_012049563 Virulence factor MUTATION: SXI1alpha establishes alpha cell identity and controls progression through the sexual cycle. Ectopic expression of SXI1alpha in a cells is sufficient to drive a/alpha sexual development (Hull et al., 2002). 12464634
5375 THR1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887595 799338232 CNAG_04156 CP003828 XP_012051624 Virulence factor MUTATION: THR1 were essential for the growth of C. neoformans in rich media, when ammonium was the nitrogen source, or when threonine was supplied as an amino acid instead of a dipeptide (Kingsbury and McCusker, 2008). 18757810
5376 TOR Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889821 799334188 CNAG_06642 CP003826 XP_012050751 Virulence factor MUTATION: Antifungal activity of rapamycin and rapamycin analogs is mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and Tor kinase homologs in divergent yeasts (Cruz et al., 2001). 11600372
5377 TUF1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884211 799312946 CNAG_00403 CP003820 XP_012046298 Virulence factor MUTATION: This gene participates in mitochondrial protein synthesis (Panepinto et al., 2005). 15765146
5378 UBP5(Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99) Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888948 799348958 CNAG_05650 CP003833 XP_012053906 Virulence factor MUTATION: ubp5Δ mutant exhibited severely attenuated virulence and many distinct phenotypes, including decreased capsule formation, hypomelanization, defective sporulation, and elevated sensitivity to several external stressors (Fang et al., 2012). 22719877
5380 UGD1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888330 799324327 CNAG_04969 CP003823 XP_012048628 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of UGD1 blocked not only the synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid but also that of UDP-xylose and modifications in the cell wall (Moyrand and Janbon, 2004). 15590833
5381 UGE Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889297 799345213 CNAG_06050 CP003831 XP_012053101 Virulence factor MUTATION: UGE2 is necessary for C. neoformans cells to utilize galactose as a carbon source at 30 degrees C but is not required for virulence. In contrast, deletion of UGE1 does not affect cell growth on galactose at this temperature (Moyrand et al., 2008). 18820075
5382 URA4 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884513 799315752 CNAG_00734 CP003820 XP_012046922 Virulence factor MUTATION: Loss of the C. neoformans Ura4 protein, resulted in an expected uracil/uridine auxotrophy and an unexpected high temperature growth defect (de et al., 2014). 25011011
5384 CXT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3254907 58261216 CNL04750 AE017352 XP_568018 Virulence factor MUTATION: This gene (USX1) encodes the previously identified UDP-xylose synthase. We demonstrated that it is necessary for both capsule xylosylation and C. neoformans virulence (Moyrand et al., 2002). 12139628
5385 UVE1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886733 799335909 CNAG_03213 CP003827 XP_012051101 Virulence factor MUTATION: The mutantation of UVE1 leads to a UV hypersensitive phenotype (Verma and Idnurm, 2013). 24039606
5386 VCX1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23886488 799320487 CNAG_02940 CP003822 XP_012047842 Virulence factor MUTATION: The loss of VCX1 does not influence cell wall integrity or capsule size but decreases secretion of the major capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) in culture supernatants.Vcx1 also influences C. neoformans phagocytosis by murine macrophages and is required for full virulence in mice (Kmetzsch et al., 2010). 20889719
5387 VPS41 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23887728 799337615 CNAG_04293 CP003828 XP_012051477 Virulence factor MUTATION: VPS41 plays a key role in regulating starvation response in this pathogenic organism and that defects in cell cycle arrest are associated with attenuated pathogenic fitness in mammalian hosts (Liu et al., 2006). 16879414
5388 VTC4 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23884995 799328003 CNAG_01263 CP003824 XP_012049426 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of the VTC4 gene encoding a polyphosphate polymerase blocked the ability of C. neoformans to produce polyphosphate. The vtc4 mutant behaved like the wild-type strain in interactions with macrophages and in the mouse infection model (Kretschmer et al., 2014). 24711572
5389 XRN1(Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans JEC 21 3257877 58267550 CNE03620 AE017345 XP_570931 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of XRN1 impairs uni- and bisexual mating (Wollschlaeger et al., 2014). 25267175
5390 CXT1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888490 799324846 CNAG_05148 CP003823 XP_012048740 Virulence factor MUTATION: Xylbeta1,2-transferase (Cxt1p) that participates in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis is also the sole transferase responsible for adding xylose to C. neoformans glycosphingolipids (Castle et al., 2008; Klutts et al., 2007). 18676952 17430900
5392 YPD1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23889385 799345490 CNAG_06151 CP003831 XP_012053169 Virulence factor MUTATION: Ypd1 is required for the viability of C. neoformans via the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway but plays multiple cellular roles in both a Hog1-dependent and -independent manner (Lee et al., 2011). 21642509
5393 YPK1 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 23888064 799340637 CNAG_04678 CP003829 XP_012052138 Virulence factor MUTATION: Deletion of PDK1, SIN1 or YPK1 but not MPK1 affected cell viability in the presence of sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors (Lee et al., 2012). 22339665