Search: for Help
Victors Home
Introduction
Statistics
News and Updates
Victors Query
Victors BLAST
Data Submission
Data Download
OHPI SPARQL Query
Documentation
FAQs
Disclaimer
Contact Us
UMMS Logo

Victors Search

Found 349 gene(s). Export as Excel file, text file

Victors ID Gene Name Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) NCBI Gene ID NCBI Nucleotide GI NCBI Protein GI Locus Tag Genbank Accession Protein Accession Protein Name Molecule Role Molecule Role Annotation PMID
24 mxiC from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876426 13449093 pWR501_p154 NP_085309.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiC mutant has a 10-fold decrease in efficiency in invading epithelial cells (Botteaux et al., 2009). 19017268
25 virF from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876428 13448990 pWR501_p051 NP_085206.1 transcriptional activator of virulence loci Virulence factor MUTATION: virF knockouts are non-invasive to host cells (Hurt et al., 2010). 20237205
26 spa47 from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876429 13449096 pWR501_p157 NP_085312.1 ATP synthase SpaL Virulence factor MUTATION: spa47 mutants form needle-less type III structure which is defective, and thus incapable of invasion of host cells (Tamano et al., 2000). 10921870
27 spa15 from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876431 13449095 pWR501_p156 NP_085311.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: spa15 mutant was attenuated in entry into epithelial cells compared to the wild-type (Page et al., 2002). 11952903
28 ipgA from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876435 13449077 pWR501_p138 NP_085293.1 invasion plasmid antigen Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgA cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993). 8376337
29 ipaD from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876444 13449072 pWR501_p133 NP_085288.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaD mutants are completely unable to invade cultured cells or lyse RBCs (Picking et al., 2005) . 15731041
30 ipgC from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876446 13449075 pWR501_p136 NP_085291.1 invasion plasmid antigen Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgC mutant attenuated in infecting Caco-2 cells monolayer (Page et al., 1999). 11207551
31 ipaC from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876448 13449073 pWR501_p134 NP_085289.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaC mutants cannot invade cultured cells or lyse red blood cells (Terry et al., 2008). 18656530
32 ipaB from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876451 13449074 pWR501_p135 NP_085290.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaB mutant is unable to infect HeLa cells (Roehrich et al., 2010). 20086081
33 spa33 from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876456 13449099 pWR501_p160 NP_085315.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: spa33 mutants are unable to secrete effectors necessary to cell invasion (Morita-Ishihara et al., 2006). 16246841
34 virA from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876471 13449129 pWR501_p190 NP_085345.1 secreted VirG-processing protein Virulence factor MUTATION: virA mutants did not move within the host cytoplasm and failed to move into adjacent cells (Yoshida et al., 2006). 17095701
35 virG Shigella flexneri 5a 876473 13449130 pWR501_p191 NP_085346.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: virG mutants are able to replicate in cells, but cell to cell spread is attenuated in monkey kidney epithelial cells (Lett et al., 1989). 2644195
36 ipgB from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876493 13449076 pWR501_p137 NP_085292.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgB cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993). 8376337
37 ipgD from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876495 13449080 pWR501_p141 NP_085296.1 secreted protein Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgD mutant is unable to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and induces shorter filapodia in host cells (Niebuhr et al., 2002). 12356723
38 mxiG from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876497 13449083 pWR501_p144 NP_085299.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiG mutant was unable to enter HeLa cells and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1995). 8559065
39 spa32 from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876502 13449098 pWR501_p159 NP_085314.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: spa32 mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells and do not secrete type III effectors (Tamano et al., 2002). 11844752
40 mxiI from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876507 13449085 pWR501_p146 NP_085301.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiI mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
41 mxiM from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876508 13449089 pWR501_p150 NP_085305.1 hypothetical protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiM mutants are phenotypically avirulent, and also unable to invade semiconfluent L2 cell monolayers (Schuch and Maurelli, 1999). 10085046
42 mxiJ from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876511 13449086 pWR501_p147 NP_085302.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiJ mutant was unable to invade HeLa cells, to induce the formation of plaques on confluent monolayers of HeLa cells, and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Allaoui et al., 1992). 1332940
43 mxiD from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876512 13449092 pWR501_p153 NP_085308.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiD mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells or to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1993). 8437520
44 mxiE from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876514 13449090 pWR501_p151 NP_085306.1 putative lipoprotein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiE deletion mutants are unable to block apoptosis of host epithelial cells (Clark and Maurelli, 2007). 17339354
45 mxiK from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876515 13449087 pWR501_p148 NP_085303.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiK mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
46 virB from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876516 13449069 pWR501_p130 NP_085285.1 transcriptional activator Virulence factor MUTATION: virB mutants have an avirulent phenotype and do not invade host cells (Sasakawa et al., 1993). 8385666
47 mxiA from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876517 13449094 pWR501_p155 NP_085310.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiA mutants were attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Andrews et al., 1991). 2037361
48 mxiD from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876523 13449091 pWR501_p152 NP_085307.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiD mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells or to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1993). 8437520
49 icsB from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876528 13449078 pWR501_p139 NP_085294.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: icsB mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eyes (Ogawa et al., 2003). 12753186
50 virK from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876530 13449190 pWR501_p251 NP_085406.1 virulence protein Virulence factor MUTATION: virK mutants have attenuated ability for intracellular spreading in host cells (Wing et al., 2005). 15664968
51 mxiH from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876534 13449084 pWR501_p145 NP_085300.1 Type III secretion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiH mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
52 ipaA from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876595 13449071 pWR501_p132 NP_085287.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaA mutants are attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Tran et al., 1997). 9184218
53 ipaH9.8 from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876625 13449172 pWR501_p233 NP_085388.1 invasion plasmid antigen Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH9.8 deletion mutant caused more severe inflammatory responses with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production levels than did wild-type Shigella, which resulted in a 30-fold decrease in bacterial colonization in murine lungs (Okuda et al., 2005). 15950937
54 sopA Shigella flexneri 5a 876658 13449231 pWR501_p292 NP_085447.1 outer membrane protease Virulence factor MUTATION: sopA mutant was able to infect HeLa cells, but was attenuated in its ability to spread to other cells compared to the wild type (Egile et al., 1997). 9076742
55 sepA from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876712 13449013 pWR501_p074 NP_085229.1 secreted protease Virulence factor MUTATION: sepA mutant has attenuated virulence in ligated rabbit ileal loop model (Benjelloun-Touimi et al., 1995). 7476198
56 IpaH7.8 from Shigella flexneri 5a Shigella flexneri 5a 876715 13449022 pWR501_p083 NP_085238.1 invasion plasmid antigen Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH7.8 mutants had a lower rate of exit from the endocytic vacuoles into the cytoplasm in mouse macrophages than the wild-type strain (Fernandez-Prada et al., 2000). 10816519
859 sodB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1023373 24113046 SF1684 NP_707556.1 superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
860 dsbA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1023438 24115149 SF3931 NP_709659.1 periplasmic protein disulfide isomerase I Virulence factor MUTATION: dsbA mutants are less invasive to MK-2 cell monolayers compared to the wild-type (Watarai et al., 1995). 7761426
861 aroA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1023875 24112316 SF0903 NP_706826.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
862 phoP from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024087 24112549 SF1149 NP_707059.1 DNA-binding response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
863 tonB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024200 56479866 SF1255 NP_707161.2 membrane spanning protein in TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex; transduces proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to outer membrane transporters; involved in the transport of ron-siderophore complexes, vitamin B12 and colicins Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
864 galU from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024213 24112632 SF1236 NP_707142.1 UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase subunit GalU Virulence factor MUTATION: galU mutant is attenuated in cell to cell spread in He La cells (Sandlin et al., 1995). 7528731
865 yihE from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024218 24115148 SF3930 NP_709658.1 predicted kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: yihE mutant is unable to cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
866 sitA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024343 56479884 SF1365 NP_707262.2 Iron transport protein Virulence factor MUTATION: sitA mutant is attenuated in mice (Fisher et al., 2009). 19289511
867 vacJ from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024405 24113718 SF2424 NP_708228.1 lipoprotein precursor Virulence factor MUTATION: vacJ mutants are incapable of intercellular spread of epithelial cells (Suzuki et al., 1994). 8145644
868 dksA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024482 56479612 SF0137 NP_706093.2 DnaK transcriptional regulator DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
869 surA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024578 24111499 SF0050 NP_706009.1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
870 aroD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1024864 24113082 SF1723 NP_707592.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
871 ompR from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1025367 56480330 SF3424 NP_709178.2 osmolarity response regulator Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
872 vacB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1025395 161485844 SF4334 NP_710044.2 exoribonuclease R Virulence factor MUTATION: vacB mutants had attenuated invasion of MK2 cells compared to the wild-type strain (Tobe et al., 1992). 1400189
873 guaA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1025630 24113836 SF2553 NP_708346.1 bifunctional GMP synthase/glutamine amidotransferase protein Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
874 hfq from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1025853 24115527 SF4327 NP_710037.1 RNA-binding protein Hfq Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
875 rfe from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026035 24115078 SF3858 NP_709588.1 UDP-GlcNAc:undecaprenylphosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: rfe mutant is attenuated in cell to cell spread in He La cells (Sandlin et al., 1995). 7528731
876 sigA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026065 24114232 SF2968 NP_708742.1 serine protease Virulence factor MUTATION: sigA mutant is attenuated in rabbit ileal loop infection model (Al-Hasani et al., 2000). 10768931
877 iucD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026141 24114947 SF3718 NP_709457.1 lysine:N6-hydroxylase Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
878 iucC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026151 24114946 SF3717 NP_709456.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
879 iucA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026161 56480400 SF3715 NP_709454.2 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
880 iutA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026206 56480401 SF3719 NP_709458.2 putative ferric siderophore receptor Virulence factor MUTATION: mutants of the iuc locus and the aerobactin receptor, iutA were attenuated in chicken embryos (Lawlor et al., 1987). 3028962
881 envZ from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026481 24114667 SF3423 NP_709177.1 osmolarity sensor protein Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
882 ompC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026756 24113600 SF2299 NP_708110.1 outer membrane porin protein C Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
883 miaA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026857 24115526 SF4326 NP_710036.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
884 iucB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1026896 24114945 SF3716 NP_709455.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
885 guaB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1027589 56480121 SF2554 NP_708347.2 inositol-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
886 virB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1237991 31983531 CP0123 NP_858256.1 VirB, transcriptional activator required for tanscription of the ipa, mxi, and spa operons Virulence factor MUTATION: virB mutants have an avirulent phenotype and do not invade host cells (Sasakawa et al., 1993). 8385666
887 virA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1237992 56404024 CP0181 NP_858314.2 VirA, secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: virA mutants did not move within the host cytoplasm and failed to move into adjacent cells (Yoshida et al., 2006). 17095701
888 spa47 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1237998 31983538 CP0149 NP_858282.1 ATP synthase SpaL Virulence factor MUTATION: spa47 mutants form needle-less type III structure which is defective, and thus incapable of invasion of host cells (Tamano et al., 2000). 10921870
889 spa33 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238000 31983540 CP0152 NP_858285.1 Spa33, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa33 mutants are unable to secrete effectors necessary to cell invasion (Morita-Ishihara et al., 2006). 16246841
890 spa32 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238001 31983541 CP0151 NP_858284.1 Spa32, secreted by and component of the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa32 mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells and do not secrete type III effectors (Tamano et al., 2002). 11844752
891 spa15 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238004 31983544 CP0148 NP_858281.1 Spa15, putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa15 mutant was attenuated in entry into epithelial cells compared to the wild-type (Page et al., 2002). 11952903
892 sepA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238005 31983545 CP0070 NP_858203.1 SepA, extracellular serine protease of the IgA1 protease family, secreted by a C-terminal autotransporter domain Virulence factor MUTATION: sepA mutant has attenuated virulence in ligated rabbit ileal loop model (Benjelloun-Touimi et al., 1995). 7476198
893 ospG from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238010 31983550 CP0227 NP_858360.1 OspG, secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: Upon infection of ileal loops in rabbits, the ospG mutant induced a stronger inflammatory response than the wild-type strain, indicating that OspG negatively controls the host innate response induced by S. flexneri upon invasion of the epithelium (Kim et al., 2005). 16162672
894 ospF from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238011 31983551 CP0010 NP_858143.1 OspF Virulence factor MUTATION: ospF mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
895 ospD3 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238012 31983552 CP0093 NP_858226.1 OspD3 (SenA), probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: sen deletion mutant elicited lower rises in mucosal short-circuit current than the wild type, suggesting that the senA/ospD3 gene encodes an enterotoxin of Shigella (Nataro et al., 1995). 7591128
896 virK from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238020 31983528 CP0237 NP_858370.1 VirK, required for proper localization of IcsA (VirG) at the surface of bacteria Virulence factor MUTATION: virK mutants have attenuated ability for intracellular spreading in host cells (Wing et al., 2005). 15664968
897 virF from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238022 56404005 CP0046 NP_858179.2 VirF, member of the AraC family of transcriptional activators, required for transcription of virB and icsA Virulence factor MUTATION: virF knockouts are non-invasive to host cells (Hurt et al., 2010). 20237205
898 ospC1 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238025 31983558 CP0094 NP_858227.1 OspC1, secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: ospC1 mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
899 ospB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238026 31983559 CP0003 NP_858136.1 OspB, protein secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: ospB mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2009). 19017275
900 mxiN from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238027 56404016 CP0141 NP_858274.2 MxiN, putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiN mutants were unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
901 mxiM from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238028 56404017 CP0143 NP_858276.2 MxiM, lipoprotein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiM mutants are phenotypically avirulent, and also unable to invade semiconfluent L2 cell monolayers (Schuch and Maurelli, 1999). 10085046
902 mxiK from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238030 31983563 CP0140 NP_858273.1 MxiK, putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiK mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
903 mxiJ from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238031 31983564 CP0139 NP_858272.1 MxiJ, lipoprotein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiJ mutant was unable to invade HeLa cells, to induce the formation of plaques on confluent monolayers of HeLa cells, and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Allaoui et al., 1992). 1332940
904 mxiG from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238032 31983565 CP0136 NP_858269.1 MxiG, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, contains one transmembrane segment Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiG mutant was unable to enter HeLa cells and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1995). 8559065
905 mxiE from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238033 31983566 CP0144 NP_858277.1 MxiE, similarities to transcriptional activators of the AraC family, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiE deletion mutants are unable to block apoptosis of host epithelial cells (Clark and Maurelli, 2007). 17339354
906 mxiD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238034 31983567 CP0145 NP_858278.1 MxiD, outermembrane protein of the secretin family, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiD mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells or to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1993). 8437520
907 mxiC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238035 31983568 CP0146 NP_858279.1 MxiC, secreted by and putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, similarities to YopN (secreted by the type III secretion machinery of Yersinia enterocoltica) Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiC mutant has a 10-fold decrease in efficiency in invading epithelial cells (Botteaux et al., 2009). 19017268
908 mxiA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238036 31983569 CP0147 NP_858280.1 MxiA, innermembrane protein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiA mutants were attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Andrews et al., 1991). 2037361
909 ipgD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238042 31983575 CP0133 NP_858266.1 IpgD, secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, modulates entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgD mutant is unable to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and induces shorter filapodia in host cells (Niebuhr et al., 2002). 12356723
910 ipgC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238043 31983576 CP0129 NP_858262.1 IpgC, cytoplasmic chaperone for IpaB and IpaC Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgC mutant attenuated in infecting Caco-2 cells monolayer (Page et al., 1999). 11207551
911 ipgB2 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238044 56404000 CP0024 NP_858157.2 IpgB2, probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgB2 mutant had entry into polarized cells reduced by 70% compared to the wild-type (Hachani et al., 2008). 18316224
912 ipgB1 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238045 31983578 CP0130 NP_858263.1 IpgB1, secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: The invasiveness of the ipgB1 mutant was decreased to less than 50% of the wild-type level (100%) in a gentamicin protection or plaque forming assay (Ohya et al., 2005). 15849186
913 ipgA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238046 31983579 CP0131 NP_858264.1 IpgA, similarities to IpgE, putative chaperone Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgA cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993). 8376337
914 ipaH9.8 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238048 56404031 CP0226 NP_858359.2 invasion plasmid antigen, secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH9.8 deletion mutant caused more severe inflammatory responses with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production levels than did wild-type Shigella, which resulted in a 30-fold decrease in bacterial colonization in murine lungs (Okuda et al., 2005). 15950937
915 ipaH7.8 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238049 31983582 CP0078 NP_858211.1 invasion plasmid antigen, probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH7.8 mutants had a lower rate of exit from the endocytic vacuoles into the cytoplasm in mouse macrophages than the wild-type strain (Fernandez-Prada et al., 2000). 10816519
916 ipaD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238053 31983586 CP0126 NP_858259.1 IpaD, secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, required for entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaD mutants are completely unable to invade cultured cells or lyse RBCs (Picking et al., 2005). 15731041
917 ipaC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238054 56404015 CP0127 NP_858260.2 IpaC, secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, required for entry into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaC mutants cannot invade cultured cells or lyse red blood cells (Terry et al., 2008). 18656530
918 ipaB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238055 31983588 CP0128 NP_858261.1 IpaB, secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, required for entry into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaB mutant is unable to infect HeLa cells (Roehrich et al., 2010). 20086081
919 ipaA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238056 31983589 CP0125 NP_858258.1 IpaA, secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, modulates entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaA mutants are attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Tran et al., 1997). 9184218
920 icsB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238057 31983590 CP0132 NP_858265.1 IcsB, invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: icsB mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eyes (Ogawa et al., 2003). 12753186
921 phoN2/apy Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238061 31983594 CP0004 NP_858137.1 PhoN2 (Apy), periplasmic phosphatase, apyrase, ATP diphosphohydrolase Virulence factor MUTATION: phoN2/apy mutant is attenuated for growth in HeLa and Caco-2 cells (Santapaola et al., 2006). 16452446
922 mxiH from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238256 31983789 CP0137 NP_858270.1 MxiH, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiH mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
923 mxiI from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 1238257 31983790 CP0138 NP_858271.1 MxiI, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiI mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
924 set1B Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 3200634 56961682 SF2973a YP_177613.1 Shet1B Virulence factor TOXIN: Shigella enterotoxin 1 is a novel enterotoxin elaborated by Shigella flexneri 2a that causes fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops and a rise in short circuit current in Ussing chambers (Fasano et al., 1997). 9176079
925 set1A Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 3200635 56961683 SF2973b YP_177614.1 Shet1A Virulence factor TOXIN: Shigella enterotoxin 1 is a novel enterotoxin elaborated by Shigella flexneri 2a that causes fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops and a rise in short circuit current in Ussing chambers (Fasano et al., 1997). 9176079
926 ospE2 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 5563318 157042767 CP0048 YP_001449236.1 OspE2 Virulence factor MUTATION: ospE mutants had attenuated adhesion to HeLa cells than the wild-type (Kim et al., 2009). 19489119
927 ospE1 from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301 5563319 157042768 CP0265a YP_001449237.1 OspE1 Virulence factor MUTATION: ospE mutants had attenuated adhesion to HeLa cells than the wild-type (Kim et al., 2009). 19489119
928 surA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1076439 30061620 S0052 NP_835791.1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
929 dksA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1076574 30061705 S0140 NP_835876.1 DnaK transcriptional regulator DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
930 aroA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1077373 30062442 S0967 NP_836613.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
931 phoP from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1077630 30062677 S1232 NP_836848.1 DNA-binding response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
932 galU from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1077674 30062756 S1322 NP_836927.1 UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase subunit GalU Virulence factor MUTATION: galU mutant is attenuated in cell to cell spread in He La cells (Sandlin et al., 1995). 7528731
933 tonB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1077715 30062775 S1341 NP_836946.1 membrane spanning protein in TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex; transduces proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to outer membrane transporters; involved in the transport of ron-siderophore complexes, vitamin B12 and colicins Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
934 aroD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078189 30063207 S1855 NP_837378.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
935 msbB Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078262 30063266 S1931 NP_837437.1 lipid A biosynthesis (KDO)2-(lauroyl)-lipid IVA acyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: msbB mutants are attenuated in mice (<a href="#reference9376">Ranallo et al., 2010</a>).
936 sitA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078295 30063294 S1964 NP_837465.1 Iron transport protein Virulence factor MUTATION: sitA mutant is attenuated in mice (Fisher et al., 2009). 19289511
937 rfc Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078521 30063485 S2219 NP_837656.1 O-antigen polymerase Virulence factor MUTATION: rfc mutant is attenuated in invasion of T84 cell monolayer and adhesion to epithelial cells (Köhler et al., 2002). 11854195
938 ompC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella 30063654 S2429 NP_837825.1 outer membrane porin protein C Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
939 vacJ from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078841 30063767 S2559 NP_837938.1 lipoprotein precursor Virulence factor MUTATION: vacJ mutants are incapable of intercellular spread of epithelial cells (Suzuki et al., 1994). 8145644
940 guaA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078991 30063899 S2725 NP_838070.1 bifunctional GMP synthase/glutamine amidotransferase protein Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
941 guaB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1078993 30063900 S2726 NP_838071.1 inositol-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
942 sodB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1079354 30063172 S1816 NP_837343.1 superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
943 sigA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1079436 30064291 S4824 NP_838462.1 serine protease Virulence factor MUTATION: sigA mutant is attenuated in rabbit ileal loop infection model (Al-Hasani et al., 2000). 10768931
944 miaA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1079793 30065543 S4594 NP_839714.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
945 dsbA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080031 30064850 S3816 NP_839021.1 periplasmic protein disulfide isomerase I Virulence factor MUTATION: dsbA mutants are less invasive to MK-2 cell monolayers compared to the wild-type (Watarai et al., 1995). 7761426
946 yihE from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080032 30064851 S3817 NP_839022.1 predicted kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: yihE mutant is unable to cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
947 iutA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080258 30065048 S4052 NP_839219.1 putative ferric siderophore receptor Virulence factor MUTATION: mutants of the iuc locus and the aerobactin receptor, iutA were attenuated in chicken embryos (Lawlor et al., 1987). 3028962
948 iucD from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080259 30065049 S4053 NP_839220.1 lysine:N6-hydroxylase Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
949 iucC from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080260 30065050 S4054 NP_839221.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
950 iucB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080261 30065051 S4055 NP_839222.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
951 iucA from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080262 30065052 S4056 NP_839223.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
952 ompR from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080544 30065312 S4339 NP_839483.1 osmolarity response regulator Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
953 envZ from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080545 30065313 S4340 NP_839484.1 osmolarity sensor protein Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
954 vacB from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080803 161486368 S4602 NP_839722.2 exoribonuclease R Virulence factor MUTATION: vacB mutants had attenuated invasion of MK2 cells compared to the wild-type strain (Tobe et al., 1992). 1400189
955 hfq from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080960 30065544 S4595 NP_839715.1 RNA-binding protein Hfq Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
956 rfe from Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T Shigella flexneri 2a str. 2457T 1080962 30064921 S3902 NP_839092.1 UDP-GlcNAc:undecaprenylphosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: rfe mutant is attenuated in cell to cell spread in He La cells (Sandlin et al., 1995). 7528731
1484 ospF from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776469 82524419 SDY_P013 YP_406014.1 OspF Virulence factor MUTATION: ospF mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
1485 ipgB2 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776481 82524431 SDY_P025 YP_406026.1 probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgB2 mutant had entry into polarized cells reduced by 70% compared to the wild-type (Hachani et al., 2008). 18316224
1486 virA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776491 82524617 SDY_P211 YP_406212.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: virA mutants did not move within the host cytoplasm and failed to move into adjacent cells (Yoshida et al., 2006). 17095701
1487 icsA Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776494 82524620 SDY_P214 YP_406215.1 VirG; outermembrane protein exposed to the bacterial surface by a C-terminal autotransporter domain and involved in the movement of intracellular bacteria by binding to N-WASP Virulence factor MUTATION: virG mutants are able to replicate in cells, but cell to cell spread is attenuated in monkey kidney epithelial cells (Lett et al., 1989). 2644195
1488 icsP Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776504 161986648 SDY_P224 YP_406225.2 SopA; outermembrane protease of the OmpP family, involved in cleavage of surface exposed IcsA Virulence factor MUTATION: sopA mutant was able to infect HeLa cells, but was attenuated in its ability to spread to other cells compared to the wild type (Egile et al., 1997). 9076742
1489 spa32 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776506 82524595 SDY_P189 YP_406190.1 secreted by and component of the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa32 mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells and do not secrete type III effectors (Tamano et al., 2002). 11844752
1490 spa33 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776507 82524596 SDY_P190 YP_406191.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa33 mutants are unable to secrete effectors necessary to cell invasion (Morita-Ishihara et al., 2006). 16246841
1491 ipgA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776525 82524575 SDY_P169 YP_406170.1 similar to IpgE, putative chaperone Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgA cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993). 8376337
1492 icsB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776526 82524576 SDY_P170 YP_406171.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: icsB mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eyes (Ogawa et al., 2003). 12753186
1493 ipgD from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776527 82524577 SDY_P171 YP_406172.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, modulates entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgD mutant is unable to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and induces shorter filapodia in host cells (Niebuhr et al., 2002). 12356723
1494 mxiG from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776530 82524580 SDY_P174 YP_406175.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, contains one transmembrane segment Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiG mutant was unable to enter HeLa cells and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1995). 8559065
1495 mxiH from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776531 82524581 SDY_P175 YP_406176.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiH mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
1496 mxiI from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776532 82524582 SDY_P176 YP_406177.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiI mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
1497 mxiJ from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776533 82524583 SDY_P177 YP_406178.1 lipoprotein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiJ mutant was unable to invade HeLa cells, to induce the formation of plaques on confluent monolayers of HeLa cells, and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Allaoui et al., 1992). 1332940
1498 mxiK from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776534 82524584 SDY_P178 YP_406179.1 putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiK mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
1499 mxiN from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776535 82524585 SDY_P179 YP_406180.1 putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiN mutants were unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
1500 mxiM from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776537 82524587 SDY_P181 YP_406182.1 lipoprotein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiM mutants are phenotypically avirulent, and also unable to invade semiconfluent L2 cell monolayers (Schuch and Maurelli, 1999). 10085046
1501 mxiE from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776538 82524588 SDY_P182 YP_406183.1 similar to transcriptional activators of the AraC family Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiE deletion mutants are unable to block apoptosis of host epithelial cells (Clark and Maurelli, 2007). 17339354
1502 mxiD from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776539 82524589 SDY_P183 YP_406184.1 outermembrane protein of the secretin family, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiD mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells or to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1993). 8437520
1503 mxiC from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776540 82524590 SDY_P184 YP_406185.1 secreted by and putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, similar to YopN (secreted by the type III secretion machinery of Yersinia enterocoltica) Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiC mutant has a 10-fold decrease in efficiency in invading epithelial cells (Botteaux et al., 2009). 19017268
1504 mxiA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776541 82524591 SDY_P185 YP_406186.1 innermembrane protein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiA mutants were attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Andrews et al., 1991). 2037361
1505 spa15 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776542 82524592 SDY_P186 YP_406187.1 putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa15 mutant was attenuated in entry into epithelial cells compared to the wild-type (Page et al., 2002). 11952903
1506 spa47 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776543 82524593 SDY_P187 YP_406188.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, putative ATPase Virulence factor MUTATION: spa47 mutants form needle-less type III structure which is defective, and thus incapable of invasion of host cells (Tamano et al., 2000). 10921870
1507 ospB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776546 82524410 SDY_P003 YP_406005.1 protein secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospB mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2009). 19017275
1508 virB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776565 82524567 SDY_P161 YP_406162.1 transcriptional activator required for tanscription of the ipa, mxi, and spa operons Virulence factor MUTATION: virB mutants have an avirulent phenotype and do not invade host cells (Sasakawa et al., 1993). 8385666
1509 ipaA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776567 82524569 SDY_P163 YP_406164.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, modulates entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaA mutants are attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Tran et al., 1997). 9184218
1510 ipaD from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776568 82524570 SDY_P164 YP_406165.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery, required for entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaD mutants are completely unable to invade cultured cells or lyse RBCs (Picking et al., 2005). 15731041
1511 ipaC from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776569 82524571 SDY_P165 YP_406166.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, required for entry into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaC mutants cannot invade cultured cells or lyse red blood cells (Terry et al., 2008). 18656530
1512 ipaB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776570 82524572 SDY_P166 YP_406167.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, required for entry into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaB mutant is unable to infect HeLa cells (Roehrich et al., 2010). 20086081
1513 ipgC from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776571 82524573 SDY_P167 YP_406168.1 cytoplasmic chaperone for IpaB and IpaC Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgC mutant attenuated in infecting Caco-2 cells monolayer (Page et al., 1999). 11207551
1514 ipgB1 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776572 82524574 SDY_P168 YP_406169.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: The invasiveness of the ipgB1 mutant was decreased to less than 50% of the wild-type level (100%) in a gentamicin protection or plaque forming assay (Ohya et al., 2005). 15849186
1515 ipaH9.8 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776601 82524505 SDY_P099 YP_406100.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH9.8 deletion mutant caused more severe inflammatory responses with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production levels than did wild-type Shigella, which resulted in a 30-fold decrease in bacterial colonization in murine lungs (Okuda et al., 2005). 15950937
1516 ospG from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776603 82524507 SDY_P101 YP_406102.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: Upon infection of ileal loops in rabbits, the ospG mutant induced a stronger inflammatory response than the wild-type strain, indicating that OspG negatively controls the host innate response induced by S. flexneri upon invasion of the epithelium (Kim et al., 2005). 16162672
1517 virK from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776611 82524515 SDY_P109 YP_406110.1 required for proper localization of IcsA (VirG) at the surface of bacteria Virulence factor MUTATION: virK mutants have attenuated ability for intracellular spreading in host cells (Wing et al., 2005). 15664968
1518 ipaH from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776622 82524546 SDY_P140 YP_406142.1 invasion plasmid antigen, fragment Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH mutant is attenuated in mice (Ashida et al., 2007). 17214743
1519 ipaH7.8 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776637 82524444 SDY_P038 YP_406039.1 probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH7.8 mutants had a lower rate of exit from the endocytic vacuoles into the cytoplasm in mouse macrophages than the wild-type strain (Fernandez-Prada et al., 2000). 10816519
1520 ospE1 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776645 82524452 SDY_P046 YP_406047.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospE mutants had attenuated adhesion to HeLa cells than the wild-type (Kim et al., 2009). 19489119
1521 ospC1 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776650 82524461 SDY_P055 YP_406056.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospC1 mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
1522 ospD3 from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3776651 82524462 SDY_P056 YP_406057.1 SenA; probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: sen deletion mutant elicited lower rises in mucosal short-circuit current than the wild type, suggesting that the senA/ospD3 gene encodes an enterotoxin of Shigella (Nataro et al., 1995). 7591128
1523 aroA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3795442 82777572 SDY_2353 YP_403921.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1524 vacJ from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3795635 82777761 SDY_2550 YP_404110.1 lipoprotein precursor Virulence factor MUTATION: vacJ mutants are incapable of intercellular spread of epithelial cells (Suzuki et al., 1994). 8145644
1525 dksA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3795792 82775537 SDY_0161 YP_401884.1 DnaK transcriptional regulator DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
1526 stxA Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3796555 82776676 SDY_1389 YP_403025.1 Shiga toxin subunit A precursor Virulence factor TOXIN: STX toxin is cytotoxic for tissue culture (HeLa) cells, enterotoxic in rabbit ileal loops and lethal when injected into rabbits or mice (O'Loughlin and Robins-Browne, 2001). 11377211
1527 stxB Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3796556 82776677 SDY_1390 YP_403026.1 Shiga toxin subunit B precursor Virulence factor TOXIN: STX toxin is cytotoxic for tissue culture (HeLa) cells, enterotoxic in rabbit ileal loops and lethal when injected into rabbits or mice (O'Loughlin and Robins-Browne, 2001). 11377211
1528 ompR from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3796726 82778778 SDY_3671 YP_405127.1 sensor, EnvZ; outer membrane protein synthesis Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1529 envZ from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3796727 82778779 SDY_3672 YP_405128.1 modulates expression of ompF and ompC Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1530 shuA Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3796783 82778670 SDY_3554 YP_405019.1 outer membrane heme/hemoglobin receptor Virulence factor MUTATION: shuA mutant was attenuated in HeLa cells subjected to an iron chelator, DIP to produce iron deficient conditions, suggesting that shuA plays a role in virulence in iron deficient conditions (Bin et al., 2006). 16856494
1531 yihE from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3797002 82778968 SDY_3886 YP_405317.1 predicted kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: yihE mutant is unable to cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
1532 iroN Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3797177 82776329 SDY_1022 YP_402678.1 TonB-dependent outer membrane siderophore receptor protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iroN mutant was attenuated in HeLa cells subjected to an iron chelator, DIP to produce iron deficient conditions, suggesting that iroN plays a role in virulence in iron deficient conditions (Bin et al., 2006). 16856494
1533 vacB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3797372 161949985 SDY_4410 YP_405788.2 exoribonuclease R Virulence factor MUTATION: vacB mutants had attenuated invasion of MK2 cells compared to the wild-type strain (Tobe et al., 1992). 1400189
1534 hfq from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3797379 82779446 SDY_4417 YP_405795.1 a growth-related protein Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
1535 miaA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3797380 82779447 SDY_4418 YP_405796.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
1536 aroD from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3797994 82776755 SDY_1474 YP_403104.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
1537 sodB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3798221 82777132 SDY_1882 YP_403481.1 superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
1538 tonB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3798748 82776605 SDY_1316 YP_402954.1 energy transducer; uptake of iron, cyanocobalimin; sensitivity to phages, colicins Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
1539 guaA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3798805 82777892 SDY_2703 YP_404241.1 bifunctional GMP synthase/glutamine amidotransferase protein Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1540 guaB from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3798806 82777893 SDY_2704 YP_404242.1 inositol-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1541 surA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3798958 82775458 SDY_0078 YP_401805.1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
1542 sitA from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3799410 82776740 SDY_1457 YP_403089.1 Iron transport protein, periplasmic-binding protein Virulence factor MUTATION: sitA mutant is attenuated in mice (Fisher et al., 2009). 19289511
1543 ompC from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3799657 82776181 SDY_0861 YP_402530.1 Ib;c Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
1544 phoP from Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 Shigella dysenteriae Sd197 3799918 82777259 SDY_2022 YP_403608.1 DNA-binding response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
1545 ipaH9.8 from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776711 82524776 SBO_P113 YP_406337.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH9.8 deletion mutant caused more severe inflammatory responses with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production levels than did wild-type Shigella, which resulted in a 30-fold decrease in bacterial colonization in murine lungs (Okuda et al., 2005). 15950937
1546 virK from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776716 82524781 SBO_P118 YP_406342.1 required for proper localization of IcsA (VirG) at the surface of bacteria Virulence factor MUTATION: virK mutants have attenuated ability for intracellular spreading in host cells (Wing et al., 2005). 15664968
1547 ospB from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776752 82524669 SBO_P005 YP_406230.1 protein secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospB mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2009). 19017275
1548 ospF from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776764 82524680 SBO_P017 YP_406241.1 OspF Virulence factor MUTATION: ospF mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
1549 ipgB2 from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776781 82524696 SBO_P033 YP_406257.1 probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgB2 mutant had entry into polarized cells reduced by 70% compared to the wild-type (Hachani et al., 2008). 18316224
1550 virF from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776800 82524715 SBO_P052 YP_406276.1 member of the AraC family of transcriptional activators; required for transcription of virB and icsA Virulence factor MUTATION: virF knockouts are non-invasive to host cells (Hurt et al., 2010). 20237205
1551 ipaH7.8 from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776815 82524730 SBO_P067 YP_406291.1 probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH7.8 mutants had a lower rate of exit from the endocytic vacuoles into the cytoplasm in mouse macrophages than the wild-type strain (Fernandez-Prada et al., 2000). 10816519
1552 ospD3 from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776824 82524739 SBO_P076 YP_406300.1 SenA; probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: sen deletion mutant elicited lower rises in mucosal short-circuit current than the wild type, suggesting that the senA/ospD3 gene encodes an enterotoxin of Shigella (Nataro et al., 1995). 7591128
1553 ospC1 from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3776825 82524740 SBO_P077 YP_406301.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, function unknown Virulence factor MUTATION: ospC1 mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
1554 dksA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3779009 82542745 SBO_0134 YP_406692.1 DnaK transcriptional regulator DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
1555 surA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3779925 82542659 SBO_0042 YP_406606.1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
1556 aroD from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3780421 82543939 SBO_1438 YP_407886.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
1557 sodB from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3780458 82543974 SBO_1475 YP_407921.1 superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
1558 sitA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3780674 82544177 SBO_1691 YP_408124.1 Iron transport protein, periplasmic-binding protein Virulence factor MUTATION: sitA mutant is attenuated in mice (Fisher et al., 2009). 19289511
1559 tonB from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3780796 82544293 SBO_1813 YP_408240.1 energy transducer; uptake of iron, cyanocobalimin; sensitivity to phages, colicins Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
1560 phoP from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3780892 82544383 SBO_1909 YP_408330.1 DNA-binding response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
1561 ompC from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3781075 82544551 SBO_2092 YP_408498.1 outer membrane porin protein C Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
1562 aroA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3781177 82544646 SBO_2194 YP_408593.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1563 vacJ from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3781371 82544831 SBO_2388 YP_408778.1 lipoprotein precursor Virulence factor MUTATION: vacJ mutants are incapable of intercellular spread of epithelial cells (Suzuki et al., 1994). 8145644
1564 guaA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3781514 82544956 SBO_2531 YP_408903.1 glutamine-hydrolyzing Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1565 guaB from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3781515 82544957 SBO_2532 YP_408904.1 inositol-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1566 envZ from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3782374 82545759 SBO_3391 YP_409706.1 protein histidine kinase/phosphatase sensor for OmpR, modulates expression of ompF and ompC Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1567 ompR from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3782375 82545760 SBO_3392 YP_409707.1 response regulator (sensor, EnvZ) affecting transcription of ompC and ompF: outer membrane protein synthesis Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1568 yihE from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3782854 82546204 SBO_3871 YP_410151.1 predicted kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: yihE mutant is unable to cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
1569 vacB from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783260 161984790 SBO_4277 YP_410527.2 exoribonuclease R Virulence factor MUTATION: vacB mutants had attenuated invasion of MK2 cells compared to the wild-type strain (Tobe et al., 1992). 1400189
1570 hfq from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783267 82546587 SBO_4284 YP_410534.1 a growth-related protein Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
1571 miaA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783268 82546588 SBO_4285 YP_410535.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
1572 iucA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783320 82546634 SBO_4337 YP_410581.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1573 iucB from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783321 82546635 SBO_4338 YP_410582.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1574 iucC from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783322 82546636 SBO_4339 YP_410583.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1575 iucD from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783323 82546637 SBO_4340 YP_410584.1 lysine:N6-hydroxylase Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1576 iutA from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 3783324 82546638 SBO_4341 YP_410585.1 putative ferric siderophore receptor Virulence factor MUTATION: mutants of the iuc locus and the aerobactin receptor, iutA were attenuated in chicken embryos (Lawlor et al., 1987) . 3028962
1577 ospE2 from Shigella boydii Sb227 Shigella boydii Sb227 5563327 157042765 SBO_P094a YP_001449234.1 OspE2 Virulence factor MUTATION: ospE mutants had attenuated adhesion to HeLa cells than the wild-type (Kim et al., 2009). 19489119
1578 sitA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3666430 74312253 SSON_1750 YP_310672.1 periplasmic-binding protein Virulence factor MUTATION: sitA mutant is attenuated in mice (Fisher et al., 2009). 19289511
1579 sodB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3666606 74312017 SSON_1500 YP_310436.1 superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
1580 vacJ from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3667111 74312862 SSON_2403 YP_311281.1 lipoprotein precursor Virulence factor MUTATION: vacJ mutants are incapable of intercellular spread of epithelial cells (Suzuki et al., 1994). 8145644
1581 envZ from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3667244 74313907 SSON_3535 YP_312326.1 osmolarity sensor protein Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1582 ompR from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3667245 74313908 SSON_3536 YP_312327.1 sensor; EnvZ Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1583 ompC from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3667899 74312736 SSON_2273 YP_311155.1 outer membrane porin protein C Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
1584 guaA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668044 74313033 SSON_2589 YP_311452.1 glutamine-hydrolyzing Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1585 guaB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668045 74313034 SSON_2590 YP_311453.1 inositol-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1586 tonB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668089 74312398 SSON_1914 YP_310817.1 energy transducer; uptake of iron, cyanocobalimin; sensitivity to phages, colicins Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
1587 senB Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668265 74313104 SSON_2665 YP_311523.1 putative enterotoxin Virulence factor TOXIN: ShET2 was found to induce fluid secretion into the intestine, thus accounting for the watery phase of diarrhea (Schroeder and Hilbi, 2008). 18202440
1588 miaA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668476 74314656 SSON_4356 YP_313075.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
1589 hfq from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668477 74314657 SSON_4357 YP_313076.1 RNA-binding protein Hfq Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
1590 vacB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668484 161986382 SSON_4364 YP_313083.2 exoribonuclease R Virulence factor MUTATION: vacB mutants had attenuated invasion of MK2 cells compared to the wild-type strain (Tobe et al., 1992). 1400189
1591 dksA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668675 74310766 SSON_0157 YP_309185.1 DnaK transcriptional regulator DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
1592 surA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3668735 74310672 SSON_0061 YP_309091.1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
1593 yihE from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3669620 74314365 SSON_4031 YP_312784.1 predicted kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: yihE mutant is unable to cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
1594 phoP from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670177 74311689 SSON_1148 YP_310108.1 DNA-binding response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
1595 aroA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670343 74311464 SSON_0909 YP_309883.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1596 iucB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670426 74313969 SSON_3602 YP_312388.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1597 iucC from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670427 74313970 SSON_3603 YP_312389.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1598 iucD from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670428 74313971 SSON_3604 YP_312390.1 lysine:N6-hydroxylase Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1599 iutA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670429 74313972 SSON_3605 YP_312391.1 putative ferric siderophore receptor Virulence factor MUTATION: mutants of the iuc locus and the aerobactin receptor, iutA were attenuated in chicken embryos (Lawlor et al., 1987). 3028962
1600 iucA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670519 74313968 SSON_3601 YP_312387.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1601 aroD from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670791 74311981 SSON_1461 YP_310400.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
1602 ospB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670805 74314841 SSON_P003 YP_313259.1 protein secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospB mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2009). 19017275
1603 ospF from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670811 74314846 SSON_P009 YP_313264.1 OspF Virulence factor MUTATION: ospF mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
1604 virB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670829 74314922 SSON_P085 YP_313340.1 transcriptional activator required for tanscription of the ipa, mxi, and spa operons Virulence factor MUTATION: virB mutants have an avirulent phenotype and do not invade host cells (Sasakawa et al., 1993). 8385666
1605 ipaA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670831 74314924 SSON_P087 YP_313342.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery; modulates entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaA mutants are attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Tran et al., 1997). 9184218
1606 ipaD from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670832 74314925 SSON_P088 YP_313343.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery; required for entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaD mutants are completely unable to invade cultured cells or lyse RBCs (Picking et al., 2005). 15731041
1607 ipaC from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670833 74314926 SSON_P089 YP_313344.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery; required for entry into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaC mutants cannot invade cultured cells or lyse red blood cells (Terry et al., 2008). 18656530
1608 ipaB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670834 74314927 SSON_P090 YP_313345.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery; required for entry into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaB mutant is unable to infect HeLa cells (Roehrich et al., 2010). 20086081
1609 ipgC from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670835 74314928 SSON_P091 YP_313346.1 cytoplasmic chaperone for IpaB and IpaC Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgC mutant attenuated in infecting Caco-2 cells monolayer (Page et al., 1999). 11207551
1610 ipgB1 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670836 74314929 SSON_P092 YP_313347.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: The invasiveness of the ipgB1 mutant was decreased to less than 50% of the wild-type level (100%) in a gentamicin protection or plaque forming assay (Ohya et al., 2005). 15849186
1611 ipgA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670837 74314930 SSON_P093 YP_313348.1 similar to IpgE; putative chaperone Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgA cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993). 8376337
1612 icsB from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670838 74314931 SSON_P094 YP_313349.1 invasion protein Virulence factor MUTATION: icsB mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eyes (Ogawa et al., 2003). 12753186
1613 ipgD from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670839 74314932 SSON_P095 YP_313350.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery; modulates entry of bacteria into epithelial cells Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgD mutant is unable to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and induces shorter filapodia in host cells (Niebuhr et al., 2002). 12356723
1614 mxiG from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670842 74314935 SSON_P098 YP_313353.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery, contains one transmembrane segment Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiG mutant was unable to enter HeLa cells and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1995). 8559065
1615 mxiH from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670843 74314936 SSON_P099 YP_313354.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiH mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
1616 mxiI from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670844 74314937 SSON_P100 YP_313355.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiI mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
1617 mxiJ from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670845 74314938 SSON_P101 YP_313356.1 lipoprotein, component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiJ mutant was unable to invade HeLa cells, to induce the formation of plaques on confluent monolayers of HeLa cells, and to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Allaoui et al., 1992). 1332940
1618 mxiK from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670846 74314939 SSON_P102 YP_313357.1 putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiK mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
1619 mxiN from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670847 74314940 SSON_P103 YP_313358.1 putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiN mutants were unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
1620 mxiM from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670849 74314942 SSON_P105 YP_313360.1 lipoprotein; component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiM mutants are phenotypically avirulent, and also unable to invade semiconfluent L2 cell monolayers (Schuch and Maurelli, 1999). 10085046
1621 mxiE from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670850 74314943 SSON_P106 YP_313361.1 similar to transcriptional activators of the AraC family Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiE deletion mutants are unable to block apoptosis of host epithelial cells (Clark and Maurelli, 2007). 17339354
1622 mxiD from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670851 74314944 SSON_P107 YP_313362.1 outermembrane protein of the secretin family; component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiD mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells or to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1993). 8437520
1623 mxiC from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670852 74314945 SSON_P108 YP_313363.1 secreted by and putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery; similar to YopN (secreted by the type III secretion machinery of Yersinia enterocoltica) Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiC mutant has a 10-fold decrease in efficiency in invading epithelial cells (Botteaux et al., 2009). 19017268
1624 mxiA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670853 74314946 SSON_P109 YP_313364.1 innermembrane protein; component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiA mutants were attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Andrews et al., 1991). 2037361
1625 spa15 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670854 74314947 SSON_P110 YP_313365.1 putative component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa15 mutant was attenuated in entry into epithelial cells compared to the wild-type (Page et al., 2002). 11952903
1626 spa47 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670855 74314948 SSON_P111 YP_313366.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery; putative ATPase Virulence factor MUTATION: spa47 mutants form needle-less type III structure which is defective, and thus incapable of invasion of host cells (Tamano et al., 2000). 10921870
1627 spa32 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670857 74314950 SSON_P113 YP_313368.1 secreted by and component of the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa32 mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells and do not secrete type III effectors (Tamano et al., 2002). 11844752
1628 spa33 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670858 74314951 SSON_P114 YP_313369.1 component of the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: spa33 mutants are unable to secrete effectors necessary to cell invasion (Morita-Ishihara et al., 2006). 16246841
1629 virA from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670886 74314979 SSON_P142 YP_313397.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: virA mutants did not move within the host cytoplasm and failed to move into adjacent cells (Yoshida et al., 2006). 17095701
1630 ipaH9.8 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670911 74315004 SSON_P167 YP_313422.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH9.8 deletion mutant caused more severe inflammatory responses with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production levels than did wild-type Shigella, which resulted in a 30-fold decrease in bacterial colonization in murine lungs (Okuda et al., 2005). 15950937
1631 ospG from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670914 74315007 SSON_P170 YP_313425.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: Upon infection of ileal loops in rabbits, the ospG mutant induced a stronger inflammatory response than the wild-type strain, indicating that OspG negatively controls the host innate response induced by S. flexneri upon invasion of the epithelium (Kim et al., 2005). 16162672
1632 virK from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670925 74315018 SSON_P181 YP_313436.1 required for proper localization of IcsA (VirG) at the surface of bacteria Virulence factor MUTATION: virK mutants have attenuated ability for intracellular spreading in host cells (Wing et al., 2005). 15664968
1633 ipgB2 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3670995 74314861 SSON_P024 YP_313279.1 probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgB2 mutant had entry into polarized cells reduced by 70% compared to the wild-type (Hachani et al., 2008). 18316224
1634 virF from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3671012 74314878 SSON_P041 YP_313296.1 member of the AraC family of transcriptional activators; required for transcription of virB and icsA Virulence factor MUTATION: virF knockouts are non-invasive to host cells (Hurt et al., 2010). 20237205
1635 ospE2 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3671015 74314881 SSON_P044 YP_313299.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospE mutants had attenuated adhesion to HeLa cells than the wild-type (Kim et al., 2009). 19489119
1636 ospC1 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3671020 74314886 SSON_P049 YP_313304.1 secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ospC1 mutants had reduced PMN transepithelial migration when compared to wild-type infection, PMN transepithelial migration is necessary for virulence of Shigella (Zurawski et al., 2006). 16988276
1637 ospD3from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3671021 74314887 SSON_P050 YP_313305.1 SenA; probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa secretion machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: sen deletion mutant elicited lower rises in mucosal short-circuit current than the wild type, suggesting that the senA/ospD3 gene encodes an enterotoxin of Shigella (Nataro et al., 1995). 7591128
1638 ipaH7.8 from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 3671029 74314895 SSON_P058 YP_313313.1 probably secreted by the Mxi-Spa machinery Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH7.8 mutants had a lower rate of exit from the endocytic vacuoles into the cytoplasm in mouse macrophages than the wild-type strain (Fernandez-Prada et al., 2000). 10816519
1652 virB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6268332 187729994 SbBS512_0046 YP_001878814.1 P-type DNA transfer ATPase VirB11 Virulence factor MUTATION: virB mutants have an avirulent phenotype and do not invade host cells (Sasakawa et al., 1993). 8385666
1653 virB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6268351 187729977 SbBS512_0044 YP_001878812.1 P-type conjugative transfer protein VirB9 Virulence factor MUTATION: virB mutants have an avirulent phenotype and do not invade host cells (Sasakawa et al., 1993). 8385666
1654 iutA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6268448 187732552 SbBS512_E4630 YP_001882797.1 ferric aerobactin receptor IutA Virulence factor MUTATION: mutants of the iuc locus and the aerobactin receptor, iutA were attenuated in chicken embryos (Lawlor et al., 1987). 3028962
1655 degP Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6268800 187732326 SbBS512_E0154 YP_001878964.1 protease Do Virulence factor MUTATION: degP mutant is unable to form plaques on Henle cell monolayers (Purdy et al., 2007). 17526712
1656 iucB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6268872 187733667 SbBS512_E4633 YP_001882800.1 N(6)-hydroxylysine O-acetyltransferase, aerobactin biosynthetic Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1657 dksA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6268971 187733763 SbBS512_E0136 YP_001878948.1 RNA polymerase-binding protein DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
1658 miaA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269094 187734140 SbBS512_E4702 YP_001882862.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
1659 phoP from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269245 187730593 SbBS512_E1308 YP_001879938.1 DNA-binding response regulator PhoP Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
1660 envZ from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269334 187732077 SbBS512_E3783 YP_001882081.1 osmolarity sensor protein EnvZ Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1661 iucC from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269369 187733201 SbBS512_E4632 YP_001882799.1 aerobactin synthase, IucC component Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1662 iucA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269390 187733037 SbBS512_E4634 YP_001882801.1 aerobactin synthase, IucA component Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1663 tonB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269502 187733308 SbBS512_E1421 YP_001880032.1 outer membrane receptor-mediated transport energizer protein TonB Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
1664 skp Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269616 187734090 SbBS512_E0171 YP_001878980.1 chaperone protein Skp Virulence factor MUTATION: skp mutants are capable of infecting Henle cells but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Purdy et al., 2007). 17526712
1665 guaA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269720 187731505 SbBS512_E2882 YP_001881298.1 GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1666 surA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269855 187733861 SbBS512_E0047 YP_001878866.1 chaperone/peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
1667 hfq from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269919 187732706 SbBS512_E4703 YP_001882863.1 RNA chaperone Hfq Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
1668 sodB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6269987 187733707 SbBS512_E1853 YP_001880416.1 superoxide dismutase (Fe) Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
1669 ompC from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6270232 187733369 SbBS512_E0724 YP_001879438.1 outer membrane protein C Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
1670 aroA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6271178 187733570 SbBS512_E2420 YP_001880897.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1671 guaB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6271528 187733701 SbBS512_E2883 YP_001881299.1 inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1672 ompR from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6272178 187731609 SbBS512_E3784 YP_001882082.1 transcriptional regulatory protein OmpR Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1673 dsbA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6272400 187731808 SbBS512_E4332 YP_001882555.1 thiol:disulfide interchange protein DsbA Virulence factor MUTATION: dsbA mutants are less invasive to MK-2 cell monolayers compared to the wild-type (Watarai et al., 1995). 7761426
1674 aroD from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6272464 187733855 SbBS512_E1896 YP_001880453.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, type I Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
1675 iucD from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6272715 187733647 SbBS512_E4631 YP_001882798.1 L-lysine 6-monooxygenase (NADPH) Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1676 mxiE from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273328 187734468 SbBS512_A0178 YP_001883207.1 transcriptional regulator MxiE Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiE deletion mutants are unable to block apoptosis of host epithelial cells (Clark and Maurelli, 2007). 17339354
1677 icsB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273360 187734507 SbBS512_A0164 YP_001883193.1 virulence protein IcsB Virulence factor MUTATION: icsB mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eyes (Ogawa et al., 2003). 12753186
1678 ipaC from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273424 187734325 SbBS512_A0159 YP_001883188.1 invasin protein IpaC Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaC mutants cannot invade cultured cells or lyse red blood cells (Terry et al., 2008). 18656530
1679 ipgD from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273427 187734497 SbBS512_A0166 YP_001883195.1 inositol phosphate phosphatase IpgD Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgD mutant is unable to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and induces shorter filapodia in host cells (Niebuhr et al., 2002). 12356723
1680 ipaD from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273497 187734361 SbBS512_A0158 YP_001883187.1 invasin protein IpaD Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaD mutants are completely unable to invade cultured cells or lyse RBCs (Picking et al., 2005). 15731041
1681 ipaA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273518 187734423 SbBS512_A0157 YP_001883186.1 invasin protein IpaA Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaA mutants are attenuated in invasion of HeLa cells (Tran et al., 1997). 9184218
1682 ipgA from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273536 187734307 SbBS512_A0163 YP_001883192.1 chaperone protein IpgA Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgA cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993). 8376337
1683 mxiD from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273557 187734437 SbBS512_A0179 YP_001883208.1 type III secretion outer membrane protein MxiD Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiD mutant is unable to invade HeLa cells or to provoke keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs (Allaoui et al., 1993). 8437520
1684 mxiK from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273571 187734296 SbBS512_A0173 YP_001883202.1 type III secretion apparatus protein MxiK Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiK mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Jouihri et al., 2003). 12864857
1685 ipgC from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273598 187734515 SbBS512_A0161 YP_001883190.1 chaperone protein IpgC Virulence factor MUTATION: ipgC mutant attenuated in infecting Caco-2 cells monolayer (Page et al., 1999). 11207551
1686 mxiH from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273614 187734359 SbBS512_A0170 YP_001883199.1 type III secretion apparatus needle protein mxiH Virulence factor MUTATION: mxiH mutants are unable to invade HeLa cells (Blocker et al., 2001). 11169106
1687 ipgB from Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94 6273621 187734448 SbBS512_A0162 YP_001883191.1 IpgB1 Virulence factor MUTATION: transposon mutants of ipgB cannot invade epithelial cells and cannot induce keratoconjunctivitis in mice (Ménard et al., 1993) 8376337
1787 iucA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4207099 110807649 SFV_3854 YP_691169.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1788 vacJ from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4207243 110806309 SFV_2414 YP_689829.1 lipoprotein precursor Virulence factor MUTATION: vacJ mutants are incapable of intercellular spread of epithelial cells (Suzuki et al., 1994). 8145644
1789 guaA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4207513 110806438 SFV_2554 YP_689958.1 bifunctional GMP synthase/glutamine amidotransferase protein Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1790 guaB from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4207514 110806439 SFV_2555 YP_689959.1 inositol-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase Virulence factor MUTATION: guaAguaB mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1791 envZ from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4207729 110807236 SFV_3409 YP_690756.1 osmolarity sensor protein Virulence factor MUTATION: envZ insertion mutant is able to invade cells but has decreased virulence due to the inability to survive intracellularly (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1792 ompR from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4207730 110807237 SFV_3410 YP_690757.1 osmolarity response regulator Virulence factor MUTATION: mutant of the ompB locus (both the envZ and ompR genes) showed attenuated virulence in HeLa cells, and a weak response to a Serany test (Bernardini et al., 1990). 2121709
1793 aroA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208207 110804915 SFV_0908 YP_688435.1 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroA deletion mutants are attenuated in HeLa cells (Noriega et al., 1996). 8757833
1794 miaA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208270 110808089 SFV_4329 YP_691609.1 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase Virulence factor MUTATION: miaA mutants had reduced ability to invade and spread in MK2 cell monolayers compared to the wildtype (Durand et al., 1997). 9294434
1795 hfq from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208271 110808090 SFV_4330 YP_691610.1 RNA-binding protein Hfq Virulence factor MUTATION: hfq deletion mutants are attenuated in guinea pig eye infection model (Sereny test) (Chao and Vogel, 2010). 20080057
1796 vacB from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208278 110808097 SFV_4337 YP_691617.1 exoribonuclease R Virulence factor MUTATION: vacB mutants had attenuated invasion of MK2 cells compared to the wild-type strain (Tobe et al., 1992). 1400189
1797 yhiE from Shigella sonnei Ss046 Shigella sonnei Ss046 4208311 110807348 SFV_3526 YP_690868.1 hypothetical protein Virulence factor MUTATION: yhiE mutant is attenuated in causing keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
1798 aroD from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208482 110805672 SFV_1719 YP_689192.1 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase Virulence factor MUTATION: aroD deletion led to attenuation in HeLa cells and monkeys (Kärnell et al., 1993). 8356844
1799 sodB from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208818 110805634 SFV_1678 YP_689154.1 superoxide dismutase Virulence factor MUTATION: sodB mutant is extremely sensitive to killing by phagocytes compared to the wild-type, and causes only mild damage in infection of rabbit ileal loops (Franzon et al., 1990). 2404874
1800 dsbA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208998 110807455 SFV_3641 YP_690975.1 periplasmic protein disulfide isomerase I Virulence factor MUTATION: dsbA mutants are less invasive to MK-2 cell monolayers compared to the wild-type (Watarai et al., 1995). 7761426
1801 yihE from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4208999 110807456 SFV_3642 YP_690976.1 predicted kinase Virulence factor MUTATION: yihE mutant is unable to cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs (Edwards-Jones et al., 2004). 15073317
1802 phoP from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4209107 110805158 SFV_1165 YP_688678.1 DNA-binding response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ Virulence factor MUTATION: phoP mutants were resolved more quickly than wild type in animal models, and are more susceptible to killing by PMNs (Moss et al., 2000). 11207599
1803 ipaH from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4209445 110805190 SFV_1198 YP_688710.1 possible fragment Virulence factor MUTATION: ipaH mutant is attenuated in mice (Ashida et al., 2007). 17214743
1804 sitA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4209646 110805358 SFV_1379 YP_688878.1 Iron transport protein, periplasmic-binding protein Virulence factor MUTATION: sitA mutant is attenuated in mice (Fisher et al., 2009). 19289511
1805 tonB from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4209759 110805256 SFV_1266 YP_688776.1 membrane spanning protein in TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex; transduces proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to outer membrane transporters; involved in the transport of ron-siderophore complexes, vitamin B12 and colicins Virulence factor MUTATION: tonB mutant is able to invade epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Reeves et al., 2000). 11035742
1806 dksA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210152 110804200 SFV_0130 YP_687720.1 DnaK transcriptional regulator DksA Virulence factor MUTATION: dksA mutants are able to invade cultured cell monlayers but are incapable of cell to cell spread (Mogull et al., 2001). 11500451
1807 iutA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210323 110807645 SFV_3850 YP_691165.1 putative ferric siderophore receptor Virulence factor MUTATION: mutants of the iuc locus and the aerobactin receptor, iutA were attenuated in chicken embryos (Lawlor et al., 1987). 3028962
1808 iucD from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210324 110807646 SFV_3851 YP_691166.1 lysine:N6-hydroxylase Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1809 iucC from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210325 110807647 SFV_3852 YP_691167.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1810 iucB from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210326 110807648 SFV_3853 YP_691168.1 siderophore biosynthesis protein Virulence factor MUTATION: iuc mutants are attenuated in chicken embryos and rabbit ileal loops (Wyckoff et al., 2009). 19130265
1811 surA from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210380 110804119 SFV_0047 YP_687639.1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA Virulence factor MUTATION: surA mutant is able to infect epithelial cells but is incapable of cell to cell spread (Behrens-Kneip, 2010). 20447864
1812 ompC from Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401 4210775 110806189 SFV_2290 YP_689709.1 outer membrane porin protein C Virulence factor MUTATION: ompC mutants were attenuated in their ability to spread cell to cell and kill epithelial cells, and had a negative Sereny test (Bernardini et al., 1993). 8359885
4868 LPS Shigella Virulence factor MUTATION: galU mutant (which has LPS lacking O-antigen) is attenuated in intracellular spread in HeLa cells (Sandlin et al., 1995). 7528731